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tizans of every description and HISTORY OF RUSSIA AND TUR- country. KEY, AT THE CLOSE OF 1788. Peter the First, whom chance

brought to the throne, was wise ET us now close our history and political: bred up in ignorance,

of the occurrences of the year he had still a genius capable of the 1788, by taking a view of the situa- greatest enterprizes; he only wanted tion of those European powers who ideas, and these he received from a are at present most conspicuous on Genevan of birth and merit. To the theatre of war.

set an example to the Boyards, The severity of the winter, caused this monarch served in the quality a total cessation of hostilities among of a drummer, and advanced gra. the belligerent powers; but each dually in his arıny. To form a party retired from the field, with a navy he travelled; and in Holland, determination, no doubt, of renewing affuming the garb of a mechanic, hoftilities : and as the war between learnt whatever belonged to thipthem, if pursued to effect, may building : from thence he came probably make a material change into England, and learnt the main the politics of Europe, in order thematical proportions to be obto understand their future proceed- ferved in constructing ships. His ing, a retrospect to the history of reign gave a new epocha of exiftthe Russians and Turks is abso. ence to the Mucovites; and since lutely neceffary: and, first, as to the his time, their strength and influence Russians.

has encreased. A century has scarcely elapsed At the commencement of this fince the Ruffian name became century, the Russians were without familiar to this country. It was a military establishment. Since they well known, that beyond the limits beat the Swedes, under Charles the of Poland there existed a vast em. Twelfth, at Pultawa, and the Prus. pire, covered with forests and snow, fian war of 1756, they have acthe capital of which was called Mof- quired the

reputation of the second The inhabitants of this cli- troops in Europe. mate were considered barbarians, At the same period, the whole labouring under despotic sway; and Russian marine consisted of a few ill the nations of Europe refused to constructed boats upon their lakes : allow the czars a place among their at present they have a numerous kings.

and powerful pavy of every rate on Divided for a long time into se. their seas. parate ftates, or torn to pieces by The Russians have also confiderintestine troubles and foreign wars, ably encreased their territories by Ruffia was weak and ignorant ; but recent conquests : Livonia, Ingria, their wars with the Poles and the and Estonia, have been added to Siredes taught them the necessity of their dominions since the comacquiring fuperiority by arts; and mencement of the present century; two of their czars, Micheal and and, within these fifteen years, they Alexis, invited to their courts ar. have acquired part of Poland, a valt



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tract between thc Dnieper and the pursued them into Europe, seized Bog, and at last the Crimea. upon Constantinople, and mounted

The czar Peter directed, at first, the throne of the Cæfars. his strength against the northern They then carried their arms easte powers ; in contending with whom ward; overcame the nations of Na. he found it necessary to draw forth tolia; invaded Armenia; drove back all his forces, and to perfect himself the Sophy into Persia; subdued, in and them in the art of military dif- one campaign, the territories of the cipline. By these wars he brought ancient Affyrians and Babylonians; the resources of his kingdom to a stripped the Mamlouks of Syria and level with those of Europe ; and flue Egypt, and the Arabs of Yemen; banow turns against the Turks with. nished the Knights of Rhodes; exo all the advantages of a polished pelled the Venetians from Cyprus, nation. Indeed, since Ruilia has (to do which, however, they loft been formed into a consolidated fourscore thousand men); took the empire, and extended her efforts Ukraine, Podolia, Volhinia, and beyond her own frontiers, her am- Kaminiek from the Poles; and afbition has been constantly directed terwards, pointing all their strength towards Persia and Turkey; and since against Europe, attacked Charles the commencement of the fifteenth the Fifth, and encamped before the century, there has not been two suc. walls of Vienna. This last measure, ceffive reigns without an attempt of however, could not be wholly affome enterprize againit them. cribed to their love of conquest :

Vaffalage still exists among the the court of Vienna having freRuffians, though the empress has quently attacked the privileges of inanumitted all the saves on her the Hungarians, they had recourse own particular domains; nor have to the protection of Mahomet IV. the inhabitants made any confider- then on the Ottoman throne, who able progress in civilization. Till immediately raised an army of two about twenty-five years ago, the hundred thousand men against the whole attention of government was Imperialists, and, as before observed, confined to the formation of soldiers; betieged their capital city i which the present reign alone has made must have fallen but for the death legislation an object; and if it be of the grand vizir Cuprogli, for only by salutary laws that a coun- the emperor had already led to try grows civilized, surely it requires Paffaw, leaving the governor with time to give those laws operation. only ten thousand men, in want of

now look back upon necessaries. Turkey

The Turks did more; they threatenIt is not more than a century ed Italy, subjugated the Moors, and fince the Turkish name was terrible at length possessed themselves of an over Europe, and their brilliant ex- çmpire comprising one of the largest ploits justified the fear they inspired, and most beautiful portions of the In less than four hundred years, earth. these people migrated from Tartary, But, let us view, them in their to fix themselves upon the borders of present situation. They have run exthe Mediterranean; and there, by a actly in an inverse ratio with the continued series of wars and victo- Russians, their strength daily deries, stripped the successors of Con- creasing, and now exhibits all the ftantine, first of their Afiatic pro- symptoms of diffolution ; the origin vinces, and, crossing the Bosphorus, of which is to be traced from the

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pushed in, and a landing took place. it was but putting ourselves on a par As on the event of this meeting inight with them; as I had observed, from the depend so much of our future tran- firit, that some youths of their own, quillity, every delicacy on our side was though considerably older than the one requifite. The Indians, though ti. with us, were kept back by the grown morous, thewed no signs of resentment people. Several more now came up, at the governor's going on fhore; an to whom we made various presents, but interview commenced, in which the our toys seemed not to be regarded as conduct of both parties pleased each very valuable; nor would they for a other so much, that the itrangers re- long time make any returns to them, turned to their hips with a much bet, though, before we parted, a large club, ter opinion of the natives than they had with a head almott sufficient to fell an Janded with ; and the latter fcemed ox, was obtained in exchange for a highly entertained with their new ac- looking-glass. These people seemed at quaintance, from whom they conde. a loss to know (probably from our want fcended to accept of a looking-glass, of beards) of what sex we were, which some beads, and other toys.

having understood, they burst into the “Owing to the lateness of our arrival, most immoderate fits of laughter, talkit was not my good fortune to go on ing to each other at the same time with fhore until three days after this had such rapidity and vociferation as I had happened, when I went with a party to never before heard. After nearly an the south side of the harbour, and had hour's conversation by signs and geiscarcely landed five minutes, when we tures, they repeated several times the were met by a dozen Indians, naked as word Whúrra, which fignifies, Be gone, at the moment of their birth, walking and walked away from us to the head along the beach. Eager to come to a of the bay. conference, and yet afraid of giving “ The natives being departed, we offence, we advanced with caution to set out to obterve the country; which, wards them; nor would they, at first, on inspection, rather disappointed our approach nearer to us than the distance hopes, being invariably sandy and unof fome paces. Both parties were armed; promiling for the purposes of cultivayet an attack seemned as unlikely on tion, though the trees and grass flourish iheir part, as we knew it to be on our in great luxuriancy. Close to us was own. I had at this time a little boy, the firing at which Mr. Cook watered; of not more than seven years of age, in but we did not think the water very exmy hand. The child seemed to attract cellent, nor did it run freely. In the their attention very much, for they fre- evening we returned on board, no quently pointed to him and spoke to greatly pleated with the latter part of each other; and as he was not fright- our discoverics, as it indicated an in. encd, I advanced with himn towards crease of thofe difficulties, which beforç them, at the fame time baring his bo- seemed sufficiently numerous. som, and Thewing the whiteness of the “Between this and our departure, we skin. On the cloaths being removed, had several more interviews with the they gave a loud exclamation; and one natives, which ended in to friendly a of the party, an old man, with a long manner, that we began to entertain beard, hideously ugly, came close to strong hopes of bringing about a con

I bade my little charge not to be nection with them. Our first objet afraid, and introduced him to the ac was to win their affections, and our quaintance of this uncouth personage. next to convince them of the superiority The Indian, with great gentleness, laid we possessed; for without the latter, tie his hand on the child's hat, and after- former we knew would be of little imwards felt his cloths, muttering to portance. An officer one day prevailed himself all the while. I found it ne on one of them, to place a target, made ceffary, however, by this time to send of bark, against a tree, which he fired away the child, as such a close con at with a pifiol, at the distance of some nection rather alarmed him; and in this, paces. The Indians, though terrified as the conclusion verified, I gave no at the report, did not run away ; but offence to the old gentleinan. Indeed, their astonishment exceeded their alarm,


en looking at the shield which the ball a small stream of frel water, which had perforated. As this produced a ferves to divide the adjacent country to little shyness, the officer, to dissipate a little distance, in the direction of north their fears, and remove their jealousy, and south. On the eastern side of this whiftled the air of Malbrooke, which rivulet the governor fixed his place of they appeared highly charmed with, residence, with a large body of convicts and imitated hiin with equal pleasure encamped near him; and on the westand readincts. I cannot help remark ern side was disposed the remaining ing here, what I was afterwards told by part of these people, near the marine Monfieur De Perrouse, that the natives encampment. From this last two guards, of California, and throughout all the consisting of two fubalterns, as many ands of the Pacific Ocean, and in serjeants, four corporals, two drumDort wherever he had been, seemed mers, and forty-two private men, under eqnally touched and delighted with this the orders of a captain of the day, to little plaintivc air.

whom all reports were made, daily " January 1788. mounted for the public security, with “ Our passage to Port Jackson took such directions to use force, in case of up but few hours, anda nose were Spent necellity, as left no room for those who far from unpleasantly. The evening were the object of the order, but to rewas bright, and the prospect before us main peaceable, or perish by the bay. such as might justify fanguine expect- onet. ation. Having passed between the capes “ As the straggling of the convicts which form its entrance, we found our was not only a defertion from the pub. selves in a port fuperior, in extent and lic labour, but might be attended with Excellency, to all we had seen before. ill consequences to the settlement, in We continued to run up the harbour case of their meeting the natives, every about four miles, in a westerly direc- care was taken to prevent it. The tion, enjoying the luxuriant prospect of provost martial, with his men, was ore its shores, covered with trees to the dered to patrole the country around, water's edge, among which many of and rir convicts informed, that the sethe Indians were frequently seen, till yereft punishment would be inflicted we arrived at a small snug cove on the on tranfgreffors. In spite, however, of fouthern fide, on whose banks the plan all our precautions, they soon found of our operations was destined to com- the road to Botany Bay, in visits to the mence.

French, who would gladly have dis. “ The landing of a part of the ma- pented with their company. rines and convicts took place the next " While ine convicts were on board day, and on the following, the remainder min, the cwo sexes had been kept most was disembarked. Business now fat on rigorously apart; but, when landed, every brow; and the scene, to an indif- their feparation became impracticable, ferent spectator, at leiture to contem and would have been, perhaps, wrong. plate it, would haye been highly pic. Licentiousness w:s the unavoidable conturesque and amusing. In one place, fequence, and their old habits of dea party cutting down the woods ; a pravity were beginning to recur. What fecond, setting up a blacksmith's forge; was to be attempted: To prevent their a third, dragging along a load of itones intercourse was impossible; and to palpr provisions ; here an officer pitching liate its evils only remained. Marriage his marquee, with a detachment of was recommended, and such advantages troops parading on one fide of him, and held out to those who aimed at refora cook's fire blazing up on the other. mation, as have greatly contributed to Through the unwearied diligence of the tranquillity of the settlement. those at the head of the different departe “ On the Sunday after our landing, ments, regularity was, however, toon divine service was performed under a introduced, and, as far as the unsettled great trec, by the Rey. Mr. Johnson, Itate of matters would allow, confulion chaplain of the settlement, in the pregave place to system.

sence of the troops and convicts, whole “ Into the head of the cove, on behaviour on the occasion was equally which our establishment is fixed, 144s regular and aftentive. In the course of


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our passage this had been repeated every “ As the constitution of this court is Sunday, while the ships were in port; altogether new in the British annals, I and in addition to it, Mr. Johnson had hope my readers will not think me furnished them with books, at once prolix in the description I am about to tending to promote instruction and give of it. The number of members

, piety.

including the judge advocate, is li“ February 1788. mited, by act of parliament, to ferer, “ Owing to the multiplicity of preff. who are expressly

ordered to be officers

, ing business necessary to be performed either of his majesty's fea or land forces. immediately after landing, it was found The court being met, completely are impossible to read the public commis- rayed and armed as at a military tribu. fions, and take poffeffion of the colony nal, the judge advocate proceeds to in form, until the 7th of February: adminifter the usual oath taken by ju. On that day all the officers of guard rymen in England to each member; took poft in the marine battalion, which one of whom afterwards swears him was drawn up, and marched off the in a like manner. This ceremeny beo parade with niusic playing, and colours ing adjusted, the crime laid to the pri. Aying, to an adjoining ground, which soner's charge is read to him, and the had been cleared for the occasion, question of Guilty, or Not guilty, put. whereon the convicts were assembled No law officer on the side of the crows to hear his majesty's commission read, being appointed, (for I presume the appointing his Excellency Arthur Phil- head of the court ought hardly to con. lip, Esq. Governor and Captain Gene- fider himself in that light, notwith. ral in and over the territory of New standing the title he bears) to prole: South Wales, and its dependencies; cute the criminal is left entirely to the together with the act of parliament for party, at whose fuit he is tried. All establishing trials by law within the the witnesses are examined on oath, same; and the patents under the Great and the decision is directed to be given Seal of Great Britain, for holding the according to the laws of England, civil and criminal courts of judicature, or as nearly as may be, allowing for by which all cases of life and death, the circumstances and fituation of the as well as matters of property, were to settlement,' by a majority of votes, be decided. When the judge advo- beginning with the youngest member, cate had finished reading, his Excel- and ending with the prelident of the lency addressed himself to the convicts court. In cases, however, of a capi. in a pointed and judicious speech, in- tal nature, no verdict can be giren, forming them of his future intentions, unless five, at least, of the seven memwhich were, invariably to cherish and bers present concur therein. The evi. render happy those who shewed a dif. dence on both sides being fini Med, and pohition to amendment; and to let the the prisoner's defence heard, the court rigour of the law take its course against is cleared, and on the judgment being such as might dare to tranfgress the settled, is thrown open again, and bounds prescribed. At the close, three sentence pronounced. During the time vollies were fired in honour of the oc

the court fits, the place in which it is cafion, and the battalion marched back assembled is directed to be furrounded to their parade.

by a guard under arms, and admision "! In the governor's commiffion, the to every one who may chuse to enter extent of this authority is defined to it, granted. reach from the latitude of 43 deg. “ Hitherto, however, [February] no• 49 min. fouth, to the latitude of 10 thing of a very atrocious pature had deg. 37 min. fouth, being the northern appeared. But the day was at hand, and southern extremities of the conti, on which the violation of public fecanent of New Holland. It commences rity could no longer be reitrained, by again at 155th degree of longitude east the infliction of temporary punishmen, of Greenwich, and proceeding in an A set of desperate and hardened vilcasterly direction, includes all islands lains, leagued themselves for the porwithin the limits of the above specified poses of depredation, and, as it genelatitudes in the Pacific Ocean, rally happens, had art enough to per.


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