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PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS.
PHICA

123 ten repeated with a blunt necdle, a a brittle to one of them, which imfine bristle, a feather, and several mediately contracted, and the itigma other things, which could not possi- being out of its way, it was bent bly injure the structure of the part, quite over to the opposite side of the and always with the same effect. flower.

To some of the antheræ I applied Observing the stamina in some a pair of scissars, so as to bend their flowers which had been irritated rereipective filaments with sufficient turning to their original situations in force to make them touch the stigma; the hollows of the petals, I found but this did not produce the proper the same thing happened to all of contraction of the filament. The in- them sooner or later. I then touchcurvation remained only so long as ed some filaments which had perfectthe instrument was applied ; on its ly resumed their former Itations, and being removed, the itamen returned found them contract with as much to the peral by its natural clasticity. facility as before. This was repeatBut on the scillars being applied to ed three or four times on the fame the irritable part, the anthera imme- filament. I attempted to stimulate in diately flew to the stigma, and re- the midst of their progress some mained there. A very sudden and which were returning, but not alsmart shock given to any part of a ways with success; a few of them on, Itamen would, however, sometimes ly were slightly affected by the touch, have the same effect as touching the The purpose which this curious irritable part.

contrivance of nature answers in the Hence it was evident, that the private æconomy of the plant, seems motion above described was owing not hard to be discovered. When to an high degree of irritability in the stamina stand in their original the fide of each filament next the position, their antheræ are effectual. germen, by which, when touched, ly Meltered from rain by the concait contracts, that fide becomes short- vity of the petals. Thus probably er than the other, and consequently they remain till some infect coming the filament is bent towards the ger- to extract honey from the base of the men. I could not discover any thing flower, thruils itself between their particular in the structure of that or filaments, and almost unavoidably any other part of the filament. touches them in the most irritable

This irritability is perceptible in part : thus the impregnation of the ftamina of all ages, and not merely germen is performed; and as it is in those which are just about dis- chiefly in fine funny weather that incharging their poilen. In some fects are on the wing, the pollen is flowers which were only so far ex- also in such weather most fit for the panded that they would barely admit purpose of impregnation. It would a bristle, and whoíe antheræ were be worth while to place a branch of not near bursting, the filaments ap- the Barberry flower in such a situapeared almost as irritable as in flow- tion, as that no infect, or other irritaters fully opened ; and in several old ing cause, could have access to it; flowers, some of whose petals with to watch whether in that case the anthe stamina adhering to them were there would ever approach the ftigfalling off, the remaining filaments, ma, and whether the seeds would be and even those which were already prolific. fallen to the ground, proved full as As the foregoing experiments New irritable as any I had examined. vegetables to poffefs irritability in

From some flowers I carefully re common with animals, so there are moved the germen, without touch- plants which seem to be endued with ing the filaments, and then applied a kind of fpontaneous motion, Lin

R 2

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næus having observed that the Rue curious property which vegetables moves one of its itamina every day seem to poffefs in common with anito the pistillum, I examined the Ru- mals, although certainly in a very ta chalepenfis, which differs very lit. inferior degree : I mean, that protle from the common Rue, and found perty, to use the words of Mr. Hun. many of the stamina in the position ter, who has studied this principle to which he describes, holding their an a vast extent in the animal econo. therze 'over the stigma ; while those my, by which their conftitution is which had not yet come to the fig- capable only of a certain degree of ma were lying back upon the petals, action consistently with health ; when as well as those which, having al- that degree is exceeded, disease or ready performed their office, had re- death is the consequence. It is only turned to their original situation. by the help of this principle that I Trying with a quill to stimulate the can explain why many plants refill stamina, I found them allquise devoid a great degree of cold for several of irritability. They are stout, strong, winters before flowering ; but, after conical bodies, and cannot, without that critical event, they perifh at the breaking, be forced out of the po.i. first approach of cold, and can by no tion in which they happen to be. art be preserved so as to survive the The same phænomenon has been ob vinter. But a more curious instance served in several other towers; but is that mentioned by Linnæus, withit is no where more striking or more out an explanation, in his Differta easily examined than in the Rire. tion on the Sexes of Plants, of the

I know it is the opinion of fome long duration of the piltilla in the philosophers that a certain degree of female hemp, while unexposed to the irritability must pervade every part male pollen ; whereas those to which of vegetables, as the propulfion of the pollen had access immediately their fluids cannot well be conceived faded and withered away. In this to be accomplished by any other case, I cannot help thinking, that in means. In a conversation on this fub- those pistilla on which the pollen had ject with the celebrated M. Bonnet, acted, and which confequently had of Geneva, he informed me, that he is performed the function for which strongly of this opinion ; and that they were designed, the vital princihe should not despair, by throwing ple was much sooner exhausted than acid or other stimulating injections in those which had known no such into the veft:Is of some plants, of stimulus. It is, perhaps, for the feeing with a microscope at once the same reason that double flowers, in propulsion of the fap, and the con. which, the organs of generation be. tractions by which it is performed. ing obliterated, no impregnation can He urged me, with that amiable en- take place, last much longer in perthufiaim for which he is remarkable, fection than single ones of the faine to pursue the inquiry. Whether I fpecies, as is notoriously the case do so or not, I think the idea too with Poppies, Anemonics, &c. In interesting to be kept to myself, and fingle Poppies the corolla falls off in Mhould be glad to see it realized by a few hours; but in double ones it any one who has time and abilities lasts several days; and this may poso for such investigations, who has ac- fibly, combined with other obfervacuracy and coolnefs in making his tions, lead to a discovery of the real experiments, as well as fidelity and use of the corolla of plants, and the impartiality in recording them. share it has in the impregnation,

I cannot conclude this paper with. about which there has yet been no out taking notice of another very probable conjecture,

PESCRIP:

T

DESCRIPTION

it becomes a little corrupted, and un

til the effluvia of the herbs be enOF THE CONDOR, OR MONSTROUS tirely evaporated : the animal is BIRD OF PERU.

then taken from the earth, and exHe Condor, a monstrous and posed in the open air. The Con, He Condor, a monstrous and dors, perceiving the proffered food,

singular bird, is found in Peru; on the coasts of Chili; in the but soon become intoxicated and

flock in great numbers; they feed, nountains of Quito ; in the Cordit giddy, and fall on the ground moleras ; and other parts of South America. The distance from the under this temporary suspension of

tionless : during their continuance zip of one of its wings to the tip of the other, when extended, is gene- and kill them. M. Condamine re

power, the Indians leisurely attack rally fifteen feet, Its claws reíem- lates another method used to destroy ble those of domestic fowls, 'rather than those of birds of prey; but its these formidable animals. A bait is bill is strong enough torip up an ox's exposed in the figure of a child, belly. This extraordinary bird fre made of a kind of earth remarkably

viscous and glutinous ; upon this the quents the mountains, as most congenial to its health, but defcends in Condors darī, with such incredible levere cold or in rainy weather. Its force, that they entangle their tastrength and voraciousness are fo

tons lo securely, as not to be able to

withdraw them. great, that it is said they fometimes

These birds have fo much strength, carry off and devour children of

that, with a single blow of their twelve years of age : it is however certain, that they often seize Jambs, down in an endeavour to seize them :

wings, they sometimes knock a man carrying them away with the great- they even parry, in some measure, elt ease. The Indians have devised various

with their affailants, and present one stratagems to destroy thefe ravenous

wing to ward off the blows aimed creatures : fometimes they place much difficulty, independent of some

at them ; so that it is not without traps near carrion ; at others, they of the most successful modes of Itrakill some useless animal, and rub its Aesh with certain noxious herbs ;

tagem, that these animals are either

taken or killed. after which they bury the flesh, until

HISTORY OF NATIONAL EVENTS.

FOR THE YEAR 1788.

POPULAR COMMOTIONS IN dience to the political novelties inFRANCE.

troduced into government, the peo

ple, with equal resolution, opposed ET us now take a review of his measures. Popular tumults have

France to the conclusion of been the consequence, in which the the year; after which we will again friends to liberty experienced the advert to the other powers of Eu- curse of a standing army, many of rope, and then proceed with a con- them having been killed and woundtinuation of the affairs of Greated : but should the spirit of the peoBritain.

ple remain, and probably it may enThe French king persisting in his crease, is it not likely to pervade rath determination of enforcing obe even the military, and, initead of

being the instrument heretofore ex. requisition of the States General on erted for rendering slavery perpe. the lubject of the treaty with Great tual, become a means of establining Britain is replete with arrogance : freedom! The ties of allegiance, he insists they shall revoke the fixth and habit of implicit obedience, article, or if not, that they shall enter may at first excite a soldiery to ex• into a similar agreement with him. ecute the tyrannical orders of the This requisition, however, met with sovereign, whose will has been their the contempt it deserved ; and in the law; but should a civil war ensue, present situation of Dutch politics, from whence would their diminished his Majesty has no reason to expect regiments be recruited; and would any extraordinary attention from the not desertion of the regulars be one States General. confequence of the contest ? for we The partial change which took can scarcely suppose that even a place in the administration, was not French army could be induced to followed by any evident change in murder their fellow subjects without the councils : yet in the midit of motive; and there are among their these perplexities, arising insurreccoinmanders and officers, men of en- tion, and public bankruptcy, a splenlightened minds, whose hearts would did' embally was received from Tiprebel against injunctions for putting poo Saib, the enemy of Great Bria people to the sword, whose only tain. This incident, however, does crime was refusing submission to the not portend that any speedy rupture caprice of a despot, and vindicating is actually in contemplation ; or, if the rights of human nature. really meditated by the Eastern ey

On the other side, it is to be ap- rant, that he would be assisted by the prehended by the friends to liberty, Western despot. The deranged state that the spirited conduct of the peo- of the French finances will not soos ple may evaporate, or be cooled by be equal to the support of a war, in fallacious promises and condescen- which, fhould the itandard of liberty fions from the crown. To kindle be displayed by Great Britain, the the latent fparks of freedom into the French, who are a spirited people, blaze of patriotisın, the flame re- would probably throw off the tramquires to be fed by skilful hands, or, mels of Na very, and, following the like the lightning's fath, its effect example of the Americans, form a will be only mischievous and tran- free government on the principles of fient : unsuccessful insurrections ne- the British revolution. ver fail to strengthen the hands of The partial change in the French the tyrant. Men of influence must administration, which has been menanimate, and men of courage must tioned, was soon followed by a total regulate the efforts of a discontented expulsion of the cabinet. The gepeople. There must be character neral odium which attended the conand ostensibility in their leaders, duet of the archbishop of Sens was with authority to connect the insur- the prevailing cause of this event. gents, and power to oppose the The arbitrary measures of this weak crown; which authority and power and proud prelate raised the disgust, can oniy result from virtue and and inflamed the indignation of the wealth. The French king thus em- people ; and yet it is apparent, that broiled with his subjects, has not, he quitted his situation with the fahowever, leffened that imperious vour of his sovereign, and that his stile which generally marks the pub- conduct was supported by the royal lic transactions of France. The re. approbation. What business have monftrance manifeited in his late churchmen with affairs of state?

A priek

A priest of the eleventh, and a priest latry is the debasing doctrine of the of the eighteenth century, are one divine right of kings ! and the same character: their stu The bishop has been succeeded dies are inimical to liberty, and they by M. Neckar, who bears the chaadopt those measures for enflaving racter of an able financier; but his the person, that they find successful principles respecting government and in subjugating the mind. What is the constitution are not as yet fully implicit obedience but a species of ascertained. superstition; and how near to ido

SELECT BIOGRAPHY.

MEMOIRS
OF HIS MAJESTY GEORGE

THIRD-CONCLUDED.

THE

THI

As to America, it does not come within the intent of this concise Me moir to enter into a discussion of

the causes which produced the civil HE spirit of libelling seems to war between that country and this.

have pervaded the people The leading question was, “When through the whole course of this ther the British parliament had a reign; and it must be acknowledged, right to tax the American colonies, by the warmest advocates for the li- without their consent, by represenberty of the press, that licentious- tation in the British parliament, they ness has too often disgraced the pub. having houses of representation of lications of these times. It must their own ?" And in defence of this also, however, be allowed, that right, though the people of Great through the same medium was diffe- Britain were divided on the quefminated found and constitutional tion, yet such was the influence of doctrines, clothed with every orna- those in administration, who called ment of language, and enforced with themselves the king's friends, thac the strongest arguments that learn- they long supported the war by the ing and logic could produce. In voice of large parliamentary majoIreland the same spirit soon became rities. It was then a vulgar error, general. Dr. Lucas, a persecuted that the Americans were cowards ; man, of a bold, intrepid mind, re- but they were found not only brave vived the doctrines of Molincaux when occafion offered, but poffeffing and Chancellor Brolton; and the astonishing prudence, the first great people pursued the declaration of principle in tactics. France finding rights promulged by these great po. Britain exhausting her best blood liticians, till they at last obtained, in and immense treasures in this war, the year 1782, a full renunciation supplied the Americans underhand from the parliament of Great Bri- with ammunition ; which producing tain, of every power and control a war, they openly became the ale that had been exercised over the le. lies of the colonies, and the peace giflature of Ireland ; and by the re- terminated in an open declaration peal of the British statute of George of their independence, under the the First, and an Irish Itatute called title of The Thirteen United States of Poyning's law, pafsed in the reign America. of Henry the Seventh, they now

Few families ever enjoyed a greater enjoy as full a share of constitu. share of domestic tranquillity than tional liberty as the people of this that of his Majesty.

The marisland,

riages of the dúkes of Gloucester

and

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