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VIII

CHAPTER II

THE FIRST APPEARANCE OF PRIESTS. Worship of the dead and worship of gods of nature as influencing

the origin of priesthood, p. 43; ancestor-worship, pp. 43–52; worship of deified men in the first place confined to the separate families, pp. 44 sq.; no regular priesthood met with on the basis of mere family-worship, p. 45; origin of ancestral gods as worshipped by whole tribes, pp. 45–52; departed persons sometimes transformed into malevolent spirits, pp. 50—52; nature-worship not concerned with relationship, p. 52 sq.; in the earliest history of cult everybody performed the rites without priests, pp. 53–55; the first differentiation of priesthood, pp. 55–57; family-worship conducted by some member of the family, pp. 57—60; king-priests, pp. 60—62, their origin, pp. 62–67, constituting one beginning of a professional priesthood, pp. 67-69; forerunners of a regular priesthood, pp. 70–75; ecstatic persons perform priestly duties, pp. 70 sq.; early priesthood often not permanent, pp. 71 sq.; observance of »sacred places», pp. 72–74; » Holy men», pp. 74 sq.; in early stages of cult almost anybody may become a priest, pp. 75 sq.; professional priesthood evolved according to the growth of ritual observances, pp. 76—78; origin of priests common to whole tribes, pp. 79 sq.; neighbouring races feared as sorcerers, pp. 80–85; Dr. Tylor's theory of the belief in the magical propensities of neighbours, pp. 81–83; it does not explain every case of such beliefs, pp. 83 sq.; mysterious powers of strangers more believed in than those of well-known people, pp. 84 sq.

CHAPTER III THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED OF THOSE ASPIRING TO THE

PRIESTLY OFFICE. INITIATION OF PRIESTS. Priesthood to a certain extent an hereditary institution, pp. 86–89;

the sacerdotal dignity passing over to descendants of the second generation, pp. 89 sq.; the faculty of conversing with the spirits generally requisite for becoming a priest, pp. 90–92; tutelary spirits, pp. 92 sq.; the powers of priests communicated by the

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gods, pp. 94—96, this taking place in dreams, pp. 96 sq., by other means, pp. 97-99; wonder-working a principal condition for priesthood, pp. 99—101; outward signs indicating the possession of mysterious powers, pp. 101 sq.; mental qualifications of priests: eccentric disposition and faculty of falling into convulsions, pp. 102-107; bringing on ecstasy by fasting or narcotics, pp. 107 sq.; primitive ideas regarding ecstasy, p. 108; rites generally performed during ecstatic manifestations, pp. 108 sq.; notions of savages regarding insanity, pp. 109–112; neophytes instructed for the priestly office, pp. 112 sq.; those inspired by the gods less in want of instruction, pp. 113–115; the preparation of a novice in many cases beginning early in life, p. 115; the length of the time of preparation, p. 116; two phases of the priestly education, pp. 116 sq.; the knowledge imparted to the candidates, pp. 117 sq.; preparing the minds of neophytes for intercourse with the gods, pp. 118—123; con-. secratory ceremonies, pp. 123 sq.

CHAPTER IV HOW PRIESTS GAIN REPUTATION. ORIGIN OF PRIESTHOOD

AS A DISTINCT ORDER. The authority of priesthood, p. 125; priests recruited from the most

intelligent elements of the people, pp. 125 sq.; they secure the popular confidence in their powers by utilizing their knowledge of natural phenomena, pp. 126-128, by collecting all kinds of information regarding their clients and acting in collusion with each other, pp. 128—130, by making their utterances sufficiently ambiguous to admit of several interpretations, pp. 130 sq., by resorting to various kinds of excuses, pp. 131–133; the priests are the sources of many superstitions, pp. 133 sq.; their prestige is increased by the mystery in which they envelope their proceedings, pp. 134 sq., by the fear inspired to the people, pp. 135 sq., by their bizarre external apperanee, pp. 136 sq., by the impression produced by their ecstatic orgies, p. 137; religious and magical rites often take place in the dark, pp. 138 sq.; the priests attach themselves to the kings and noble classes, p. 139; their number is often recruited from the most noble families, pp. 140 sq.; the influence of the priests dependent

jentists in ifferent ways: the sucking on of savage

upon their power of wonder-working, pp. 141—143; priests who loose their power forfeit. their office and are sometimes punished, pp. 143 sq.; killing of priests, pp. 144—146; the question whether priests are impostors or not, pp. 146–154; views of scientists in this respect, pp. 146 sq.; the question often considered in different ways, p. 147; statements that priests are impostors, pp. 147--149; the sucking cure, pp. 149 Sq,; the self-deception and power of imagination of savages, pp. 150 sq.; the priests are themselves victims to the popular superstitions, pp. 150—154; the hereditary succession and the preparation of priests for the office contribute to the distinct status of priesthood, p. 155; habitual practices obligatory upon priests, pp. 155–162; ascetic regulations as to sexual life, pp. 155—157; great liberties sometimes accorded to priests in sexual respect, pp. 157 sq.; fasting, pp. 158–160; the use of narcotics for religious ends, pp. 160. sq.; food restrictions, pp. 161 sq.; the external appearance of priests as betokening their separateness, pp. 162 sq.; the length of the hair of priests, pp. 163 sq.; badges, p. 164; the separate language of priests, pp. 164--167.

CHAPTER V
CLASSIFICATION OF PRIESTS AND DISTRIBUTION

OF PRIESTLY FUNCTIONS.
Two types of supernaturalistic practitioners, p. 168; definitions of

priests and sorcerers, pp. 168–171; certain writers associate the difference between these classes with that between higher · and lower aspects of spiritual evolution, pp. 168–170, others with the difference between the good and evil nature of the practices, pp. 170 sq.; the difference is based upon functionary dissimilarities, pp. 171; priests and sorcerers, religion and magic defined, pp. 171-173; the types of priests and sorcerers in reality blend into one another, p. 173; in a few cases they are distinct, ib.; instances of priests who also practise magic, p. 174 sq., of sorcerers who display priestly traits, pp. 175—177; the enmity generally prevailing between a good and a evilminded class of the priesthood, pp. 177-179; this distinction often arbitrary, pp. 179 sq.; the attribute of good not confined

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