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In ancient Peru they had sorcerers and witches, but this profession was more commonly practised by women than men.» With reference to Hottentot superstitions we learn that under the imputation of witchcraft »their Old Women, like ours, suffer more than any others.» 2 In the Government of Tomsk in South Siberia native sorceresses who harm the people by witchcraft are much more numerous than male sorcerers. 3 Among the Arabs, also, witches exceed the wizards in number, 4 and similarly in Europe, in olden times, women

more frequently accused of practising witchcraft than men. 5

If an Eskimo becomes ill, »the wife is often accused of working some charın on her husband in order that she may enjoy the favours of another.» 6 Likewise in East Central Africa, among the Wawira, the wives of a deceased man are most often regarded as those guilty of his death, and therefore in case of death occuring to their husband the wives generally run away." When a Gaul of rank died under suspicious circumstances his relations had the wives examined in the manner adopted with slaves, and if proof was obtained, put them to severe torture, and killed them. 8




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Garcilasso de la Vega, Royal Commentaries, i. 60.
Kolben, Present State of the Cape of Good-Hope, i. 133.

Костровъ, 'Колдовство Томской Туберніи, іn Записки В.-Сиб. Отд. Геогр. Общ. і. 16.

Wellhausen, Reste Arabischen lleidenthums, p. 159.

5 Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, ii. 867. Delacroix, l'rocès de Sorcellerie, p. 60. Hansen, Zauberwahn, p. 16. Bang, Hexevæsen og Herefo fölgelser, p. 15.

o Turner, 'Ethnology of the Ungava District, Hudson Bay Territory,' in Smithsonian Reports, xi. 199.

7 Stublmann, Mit Emin Pascha, p. 394.

Caesar, ine Bello Gallico, B. ri. Ch. 19. From Madagascar we learn of a parallel custom referring to slaves. When a member of a native family is taken ill, the slaves of the family are frequently subjected to


As we learn from a few instances, among some peoples, who have both male and female priests, a certain class of priestly functions is confined to one or other of the two sexes. Thus the ceremony of the Great Medicine Lodge among the Blackfoot Indians is invariably conducted by a woman.' In Greece the oracles hallowed by Apollo were always delivered by a woman." The Roman Vestals, 3 the Peruvian Virgins of the Sun, the Mexican Maidens of Penance and the Persian Sun Priestesses, of whom we have spoken in a previous chapter, * illustrate a sacerdotal class whose office is held by females. Also from Africa come occasional reports of priestesses displaying the type of Vestals. 5 Kubary mentions from the Pelew Islands numerous classes of diviners, one of which foretell future events from the fracture of cracked nuts; these are always of the male sex. There are also two classes who predict the future by invoking certain spirits, and these invariably consist of female diviners. 6 Among certain Indians of California, although in these tribes many women honoured as shamans and prophetesses, none of the female sex are admitted to the medical profession, the privilege of quackery being reserved exclusively to the men. 7


the trial by ordeal, it being suspected that some one among them has caused the illness by means of witchcraft. Ellis, History of Madagascar,

i. 477 sq.



Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, p. 263.
Götte, Das Delphische Orakel, p. 77.
Jordan, Der Tempel der Vesta, p. 70.
Sue p. 157.
Casati, Dieci Anni in Equatoria, i. 186.
In Bastian, Allerlei, i. 40 sq.

Puwers, 'Tribes of California,' in Survry of the Rocky Mountain Re,ion, iii. 152 Bancroft, Works, i. 394.


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