Billeder på siden
PDF
ePub

1

were

In ancient Peru they had sorcerers and witches, but this profession was more commonly practised by women than men.» With reference to Hottentot superstitions we learn that under the imputation of witchcraft »their Old Women, like ours, suffer more than any others.» 2 In the Government of Tomsk in South Siberia native sorceresses who harm the people by witchcraft are much more numerous than male sorcerers. 3 Among the Arabs, also, witches exceed the wizards in number, 4 and similarly in Europe, in olden times, women

more frequently accused of practising witchcraft than men. 5

If an Eskimo becomes ill, »the wife is often accused of working some charın on her husband in order that she may enjoy the favours of another.» 6 Likewise in East Central Africa, among the Wawira, the wives of a deceased man are most often regarded as those guilty of his death, and therefore in case of death occuring to their husband the wives generally run away." When a Gaul of rank died under suspicious circumstances his relations had the wives examined in the manner adopted with slaves, and if proof was obtained, put them to severe torture, and killed them. 8

1

2

3

[ocr errors]

Garcilasso de la Vega, Royal Commentaries, i. 60.
Kolben, Present State of the Cape of Good-Hope, i. 133.

Костровъ, 'Колдовство Томской Туберніи, іn Записки В.-Сиб. Отд. Геогр. Общ. і. 16.

Wellhausen, Reste Arabischen lleidenthums, p. 159.

5 Grimm, Deutsche Mythologie, ii. 867. Delacroix, l'rocès de Sorcellerie, p. 60. Hansen, Zauberwahn, p. 16. Bang, Hexevæsen og Herefo fölgelser, p. 15.

o Turner, 'Ethnology of the Ungava District, Hudson Bay Territory,' in Smithsonian Reports, xi. 199.

7 Stublmann, Mit Emin Pascha, p. 394.

Caesar, ine Bello Gallico, B. ri. Ch. 19. From Madagascar we learn of a parallel custom referring to slaves. When a member of a native family is taken ill, the slaves of the family are frequently subjected to

8

As we learn from a few instances, among some peoples, who have both male and female priests, a certain class of priestly functions is confined to one or other of the two sexes. Thus the ceremony of the Great Medicine Lodge among the Blackfoot Indians is invariably conducted by a woman.' In Greece the oracles hallowed by Apollo were always delivered by a woman." The Roman Vestals, 3 the Peruvian Virgins of the Sun, the Mexican Maidens of Penance and the Persian Sun Priestesses, of whom we have spoken in a previous chapter, * illustrate a sacerdotal class whose office is held by females. Also from Africa come occasional reports of priestesses displaying the type of Vestals. 5 Kubary mentions from the Pelew Islands numerous classes of diviners, one of which foretell future events from the fracture of cracked nuts; these are always of the male sex. There are also two classes who predict the future by invoking certain spirits, and these invariably consist of female diviners. 6 Among certain Indians of California, although in these tribes many women honoured as shamans and prophetesses, none of the female sex are admitted to the medical profession, the privilege of quackery being reserved exclusively to the men. 7

are

the trial by ordeal, it being suspected that some one among them has caused the illness by means of witchcraft. Ellis, History of Madagascar,

i. 477 sq.

1

2

Grinnell, Blackfoot Lodge Tales, p. 263.
Götte, Das Delphische Orakel, p. 77.
Jordan, Der Tempel der Vesta, p. 70.
Sue p. 157.
Casati, Dieci Anni in Equatoria, i. 186.
In Bastian, Allerlei, i. 40 sq.

Puwers, 'Tribes of California,' in Survry of the Rocky Mountain Re,ion, iii. 152 Bancroft, Works, i. 394.

5

[ocr errors]

7

AUTHORITIES QUOTED

Acosta, Joseph de, Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. 2 vols.

Madrid, 1792. Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae. Helsingfors. Aranytobó (Agapitof), H. H., and Xahrajob'b (Hangalof), M. H.,

Матерьяли дла изучения шаманства въ Сибири. Шаманство у Бурятъ Иркутской Губерніи. In Извѣстія В.

Сиб. Отд. Геогр. Общщ. xiv. Alberti, J. C. L., Die Kaffern auf der Südküste von Afrika. Gotha,

1815. Alcedo, Antonio de, The Geographical and Historical Dictionary of

America and the West Indies. Trans. 5 vols. London 1812-15. Allardt, A., Nyländska folkseder och bruk, vidskepelse m. m. In

Nyland. Samlingar utgifna af Nyländska Afdelningen, iv. Allen, Grant, The Evolution of the Idea of God. London, 1897. Allen, William, and Thomson, T. R. H., A Narrative of the Expe

dition to the River Niger, in 1841. 2 vols. London, 1848. Aminoff, T. G., Reseberättelse afgifven till Finska Vetenskapssocie

teten. In Öfversigt af Finska Vetenskaps-Societetens för

handlingar, xxi. Andersson, C. J., Lake Ngami. London, 1856. Antananarivo Annual and Madagascar Magazine (The). Antananarivo. Appun, K. F., Die Indianer in Britisch Guayana. In Ausland, 1871. Arbousset, T., and Daumas, F., Narrative of an Exploratory Tour

to the North-East of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope.

Trans. Cape Town, 1846. Asiatick Researches. Calcutta. Aspelin, J. R., Suomen asukkaat pakanuuden aikana. Helsingfors, 1885. -- Mordvalaisten pakanalliset jumalat ja juhlamenot. In Kirjalli

nen Kuukauslehti, viii-ix. Astrup, E., Blandt Nordpolens Naboer. Christiania, 1895. Ausland (Das), Stuttgart and Augsburg.

Backhouse, James, A Narrative of a Visit to the Mauritius and

South Africa. London, 1844. Bailey, John, An Account of the Wild Tribes of the Veddahs of

Ceylon. In Trans. Ethn. Soc. N. S. ii. Bang W., Hexevæsen og Hexeforfølgelser især i Danmark. Copen

hagen, 1896.

Bancroft, H. H., Works of. 5 vols. San Fransisco, 1883-86. Банзаровъ (Banzarof), Д., Черная вѣра или Шаманство у Мон

TOJOBb. Petersburg, 1891. Barrow, John, Travels into the Interior of Southern Africa. 2 vols.

London, 1806. Bartels, Max, Die Medicin der Naturvölker, i. Leipzig, 1893. Barth, "Henry, Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa.

5 vols. London, 1857-58. Bartram, William, Observations on The Creek and Cherokee Indians.

In Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, iri, pt. 1. Bastian, Adolf, Afrikanische Reisen. Ein Besuch in San Salvador.

Bremen, 1859.
- Der Mensch in der Geschichte. 3 vols. Leipzig, 1860.
Die Rechtsverhältnisse bei verschiedenen Völkern der Erde.
Berlin, 1872.
Allerlei aus dem Volks- und Menschenkunde. 2 vols. Ber-

lin, 1888. Baudissin, W. W., Die Geschichte des alttestamentlichen Priester

thums. Leipzig, 1889. Bechtinger, J., Ein Jahr auf den Sandwich-Inseln. Vienna, 1869. Becker, J., La Vie en Afrique, ou Trois Aus dans l'Afrique Cen

trale. 2 vols. Paris, 1887. Beecham, John, Ashantee and the Gold Coast. London, 1841. Beechey, F. W., Voyage

to the Pacific and Behring's Straits. Compiled by R. Huish. London, 1836. Bell, H. J., The History, Trade, Resources, and Present Condition

af the Gold Coast Settlement. Liverpool, 1893. Bérenger-Feraud, L. J. B., Superstitions et Survivances Etudiées au

Point de vue de leur Origine et de leurs Transformations.

5 vols. Paris, 1896. Beverley, Robert, The History of Virginia. Richmond, Virginia, 1855. Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch

Indië. Uitgegeven door het koninklijk institut voor de taal-,

land- en volkenkunde van Nederlandsch Indië. Amsterdam. Blackhouse, James, A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colo

nies. London, 1843. Blagden, C. O., Notes on the Folk-lore and Popular Religion

Malays. In Jour. of the Straits Branch of the Roy. As.

Soc. 1896.
Blumentritt, F., Die Kianganen (Luzon). In Ausland, 1891.
Boas, Franz, The Central Eskimo. In Smithsonian Institution, Annual

Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, vi.
The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwa-
kintl Indians. In Annual Report of the Board of Regents of

the Smithsonian Institution, 1895. Boller, Henry A., Among the Indians. Eight Years in the Far

West. Philadelphia, 1868. Bonwick, James, Daily Life and Origin of the Tasmanians. LonBonwick, James, The Australian Natives. In Jour. Anthr. Inst. xvi. Bosman, William, A New and Accurate Description of the Coast

don, 1870.

of Guinea. Trans. London, 1705. Bossu, Nouveaux Voyages aux Indes Occidentales. 2 vols. Pa

ris, 1768. Bouche, Pierre, Sept Ans en Afrique Occidentale. La Côte des

Esclaves et le Dahomey. Paris, 1885. Bourkie, J. G., The Medicine-Men of the Apache. In Smith

sonian Institution, Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, ix. Bowdich, T. E., Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee. Lon

don, 1819. Brett, W. H., The Indian Tribes of Guiana; their Condition and

Habits. London, 1868. Bridges, Thomas, Manners and Customs of the Firelanders. In A

Voice for South America, xii.

Das Feuerland und seine Bewohner, in Globus, 1885. Brinton, D. G., Religions of Primitive Peoples. New York, 1897. Buch, Max, Die Wotjäken. In Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae, xii. Buchner, Max, Kamerun. Leipzig, 1887. Bulletins de la Société d'Anthropologie de Paris. Burnet, D. 'G., The Comanches and other Tribes of Texas. In

Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information respecting

the Indian Tribes of the United States, i. Burton, R. F., The Lake Regions of Central Africa. 2 vols. Lon

don, 1860.

A Mission to Gelele, King of Dahome. 2 vols. London, 1864. Burton and Ward, Report of a Journey into the Batak Country. In

Trans. Roy. As. Soc. i.
Butler, John, Travels and Adventures in the Province of Assam.

London, 1855.
Büttikofer, J., Reisebilder aus Liberia. 2 vols. Leyden, 1890.

Einiges über die Eingeborenen von Liberia. In Internationa-
les Archiv für Ethnographie, i.

[ocr errors]

Caesar, Commentarii de Bello Gallico.
Caillié, René, Travels through Central Africa to Timbuctoo. 2 vols.

London, 1830.
Calcutta Review (The). Calcutta.
Callaway, Henry, The Religious System of the Amazulu. 4 pts.

Natal, 1868–70. Cameron, A. L. P., Notes on some Tribes of New South Wales.

In Jour. Anthr. Inst. xiv. Cameron, V. L., Quer durch Afrika. 2 vols. Leipzig, 1877. Casati, G., Dieci Anni in Equatoria e Ritorno con Emin Pascia.

2 vols. Milan, 1891. Castrén, M. A., Nordiska resor och forskningar. 8 vols. Helsing

fors, 1850-70. Charlevoix, P. F. X. de. A Voyage to North-America. Trans. 2

vols. Dublin, 1866.

« ForrigeFortsæt »