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stimulants has increased until there is, per- actly the reverse of what should be the haps, not one in a hundred who does not case. Instead of seeking excitement, health resort to something of this kind. Alcohol,

and long life demand that we should shun absinthe, opium, hashish, tobacco, coffee,

it. The natural condition of the body is tea or whatever it may be, is taken to sup

that of unruftled calmness. If excitement port the system under the effect of nervous prostration, and supply in another form the occur it should be exceptional, not the rule excitement it craves. Now, all this is ex- of life.

IMMIGRANTS OF TO-DAY. A LEADING daily newspaper of Chicago torians of that era, and this Asiatic blood recently had an editorial based on the fact is some of the worst in existence, especially that a few days before that date six mur- when crossed with the Sicilian; threederers were electrocuted in one day at Sing fourths of these immigrants are criminal Sing. The singular thing about the article from choice. was that its whole trend was a denuncia- It is necessary to go much farther back tion of foreign private "bankers," who are than our government or the foreign banksupposed to exert a baleful intluence on ers which are established here, many of their countrymen who come over to this which really are cormorants, in league with country, and who are only a shade more the employment agencies for fleecing the criminal than the bankers themselves, for immigrants. The foreign governments are the influence they exert and usurp over doubtless in league with the criminals-in these immigrants, who, with the employ- getting rid of the criminal element, the ment agents who operate hand-in-glove element that could not be induced to go with them, keep the said immigrants in the outside the purlieus of the cities, where slums, where they can secure a share of they can exercise their Black Hand and the money they succeed in securing, the other infamous schemes, natural outcomes one by getting it as a deposit and the other of the bandit operations which have made by getting driblets of it in the way of fees the mountainous spots of some of the counfor securing jobs for him—the briefer the tries abodes of outlawry and gatherings of jobs the more frequent the driblets com- murderers. The present immigration from ing to the agent therefor.

those countries is made up largely from The editorial assailed the United States these ciasses, and what more natural than government and the American people for that they should continue their murderous their neglect of these immigrants, by which couse of life here? It would be a wonder they were allowed to stay in the slums in- if they did not. stead of being induced to seek employment Then, in addition to the connivance of on American farms, away from the bad some of the foreign governments in saying influences of the slums-which is an ab- "Good riddance to bad rubbish!" to these surdity on the face of it, as anyone must people, the steamship agents are in the know who has given the subject any atten- gigantic effort to keep the passenger list tion whatever.

full. All that our government can do is The fact of the matter is that three- to use a fine sieve at Ellis Island and watch fourths of these immigrants from southern the people who leak through with foreign Europe, where they are tinctured with Asi- criminal records, in spite of the care exatic blood, some of it dating back to the ercised, and are sure to be heard from wars when Constantinople was won from sooner or later in the criminal courts here. Roman to Turkish control, as described by Things have come to a pretty pass in the General Lew Wallace, as well as the his- immigration business. It is quite safe to




say that scarcely one out of a dozen of the can be and is being done by the New immigrants from southern Europe is a de- World with its new blood and its new dissirable addition to the American people as coveries along the line of future possibilia class; and there is very little of the de- ties. sirable elements which came in abundance What is needed now is not government a generation or half a century ago_immi- suggestions to the immigrants now coming grants from England, Scotland, Germany, in in a horde from foreign to American and of the better class of Ireland's hard slums, but a prohibition of immigration workers-noted in the immigration rolls of entirely of the classes now arriving. If to-day, not to mention a great deal of that this cannot be done without “making fish from the Scandinavian countries. All of of one and flesh of the other," then the

, this has contributed materially to the mak- entire stream of immigration should be ing up of a most desirable composite citi- stopped. We have all we can do at present zenship, toning and in some ways bettering to make over and amalgamate the undethe generations coming out from the Puri- sirables already here, and it is to be hoped tanism of Boston and Salem, the Pilgrims that we may be allowed to engage in this of Plymouth and the south shore of Massa- work for a while in peace, without having chusetts, the Quakers of Rhode Island, the any more "raw material" dumped upon our narrow people of Connecticut, all coming shores, to vitiate still more the tide of crimcut of the cauldron from which the present inality being dumped on our shores from and the future American citizens emerge the criminal regions of Europe. This is after the amalgamation therein, the ideal naturally a humanitarian measure, and the citizens of America. These forces are other nasty pool of politics should not be making the United States felt in the mak- allowed to pollute it still further by mixing ing over of the world into a more desirable its own nauseous mess with that of the one class, and are showing the Old World what possibly still more noxious.

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TRUTH always rises above falsehood, as There are people who go through the oil rises above water.-Spanish Proverb. world looking for slights, and they are

necessarily miserable, for they find them at The man who is prepared has his battle every turn.—DRUMMOND. half fought.-Spanish Proverb.

HONESTLY strive to better your condiHave a heart that never hardens, a tem

tion, but remember that contentment is a
per that never tires, and a touch that never

brighter jewel than riches.—CARDINAL

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EDITOR'S NOTE:- This is a regular monthly department which is being conducted by Doctor Clock who is, we believe, peculiariy well fitted to write authoritatively on these subjects. In this department, Doctor Clock will discuss problems in personal hygiene, child hygiene, public and domestic hygiene, etc.; and the articles will be of interest to every person who is interested in right living-to the laity as well as to the medical profession-for the subject is of vital importance.



Author of "Our Baby.” Licensed Health Officer for the State of New Jersey; Member of the New Jersey Sanitary Association and the American Public Health Association; Lecturer on Child Hygiene to the Woman's Educational Club of Pelham, New York; Assistant Physician to the Out-Patient Departinent of The Babies' Hospital of the City of New York and St. Mary's Free Hospital for Children, New York City; Clinical Assistant Obstetrician to the New

York Post-Graduate Medical School and Hospital, etc.


From the earliest period of history, bath- mere matter of luxury, but chiefly for the ing has been considered conducive to the sake of cleanliness and healthful exercise. health and welfare of the human race.

It is well known to what extent the Rosome respects, the ancients appreciated the mans indulged in the luxury of baths-in value of bathing more, perhaps, than we their private houses as well as in magnifido; to them, cleanliness of the body was a cent public bath houses, planned on a grand symbol of moral purity. In many religious scale and seldom excelled in our own age. rites, regular bathing of the body was com- The magnitude of such baths may be unpulsory; and, for this purpose, bathhouses derstood from a study of the ruins of the were established in Persia, Assyria, India baths of Emperors Caracalla, Diocletianus, and Egypt. Moses ordered regular body Titus and the Thermæ of Pompeii. Even baths to be taken before the daily meals, in their foreign provinces, the Romans before wedding festivities and birth cele- erected large bath houses. Again, we find brations, before entering the temple of it related by the Roman historical writer, worship, and before all religious ceremo- Tacitus, that the Germans enjoyed taking nies. Hebrew girls and women were com- daily baths and swimming exercises in the mended by strict laws to bathe at regular rivers, in which both sexes bathed. monthly intervals, and this custom prevails Up to the beginning of the Middle Ages, with the orthodox Jews even at the present bathing remained popular, but subsequently day. The Greeks considered the care of the practice degenerated. It is only since the body necessary for a sound develop the middle of the nineteenth century that ment of the mind; they bathed in the rivers the healthful influence of bathing has been during the summer, and public swimming again recognized, and public bath houses haths were used in winter. Bathtubs were are once more on the increase, due largely installed only in the houses of the rich. to the recommendation and urging of Warm baths are mentioned by Homerus, physicians. and even medical baths were known at that

PERSONAL CLEANLINESS. time, the hot sulphur baths of Thermopylæ being used for the cure of disease. The The periodical cleansing of the surface gymnasiums of the Greeks, devoted to ath- of the body is a condition for continued letic exercises, generally had baths attached health, and becomes a potent factor in proto them; and the baths were used not as a longing life. The best way of preventing disease consists in quickly removing all dirt of the skin, either in the form of an imand refuse, not only from the street and perceptible vapor called insensible perspirafrom the house, but from the surface of tion, or, under the influence of muscular the body as well. Uncleanliness of the exercise, emotion, heat or hot drinks, in body may lead to skin disease; it often the form of sensible perspiration, which is causes offensive odors, due to the putrefac- deposited on the surface of the skin in tion of the dirt on the skin and in the cloth- drops of varying size. ing, and it is a frequent source of contam- Now, what are the functions of the skin? ination of the air in closed apartments, es

First, it serves as a protection to the softer pecially in places where many people con- parts beneath; second, it regulates the temgregate—as in schools, workshops, theatres perature of the body; third, it eliminates and churches.

waste materials from the body; and fourth, Cleanliness of the body is absolutely in- it is the organ of touch. dispensable for the proper development of

OBJECTS OF BATHING. the child and the maintenance of health in

Bathing has two chief purposes; first, the adult. In order to fully appreciate the

the maintenance of health, and second, the value and effect of bathing upon the health,

restoration of health. Bathing tends to preit is essential to know something of the

serve health in several ways: structure and functions of the skin.

1. By cleansing the surface of the body. THE SKIN AND ITS FUNCTIONS.

2. By promoting the proper functions of

the skin. The skin may be said to be composed of two distinct layers-a thin outer layer,

3. By its stimulating or soothing effects. known as the cuticle or epidermis; and a

4. By increasing the circulation of the thick deeper layer, called the corium, cutis

blood, the respiration, the combustion in vera, or derma. Beneath the corium there

the tissues, and the perspiration. is a layer of fatty tissue called the sub

5. By hardening the skin against atmoscutaneous tissue. The cuticle contains a

pheric influences. layer of horny cells, which are constantly

6. By affording means of bodily exerbeing renewed, the old cells being thrown

cise, as in swimning. off in the form of fine scales; and in the

In other words, baths are taken chiefly lowest stratum of the cuticle are lodged

for the purpose of bodily cleanliness, but the pigment cells. The corium contains

also in order to refresh, strengthen and inblood vessels, nerves, nerve corpuscles,

vigorate the body; to open the pores of the lymphatics, hair follicles, sweat glands and

skin; to make the muscles more pliable; to sebaceous glands; while the subcutaneous

render the body less sensitive to changes of tissue contains some of the deeper hair fol

temperature; to give a higher degree of licles and sweat glands. The hair follicles

endurance; and, finally, to afford muscu

lar exercise. are hollow receptacles, from the bottom of which the hairs grow. Alongside of each

IMPORTANCE OF BATHING. hair follicle, there is a pair of sebaceous The exudations from the skin and the glands which provide the small quantity of oily secretion from the sebaceous glands, natural oil with which the hair is supplied together with the dead particles of the and which keeps the skin soft and flexible. cuticle, mingle with the dust and dirt of The sweat glands consist of bundles of the air to form an incrustation more or less tubing, one end of which passes through thick which closes up the pores and thus the skin and opens on the surface in the hinders perspiration, at the same time causso-called "pores.” The secretion from these ing bad odors, due to putrefaction of the glands is called sweat, or perspiration, and mixture. Part of this dirt crust is probably is constantly passing off from the surface loosened and becomes attached to the un

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derwear of a person; hence, the less often semi-liquid, liquid or gaseous substance, the underclothing is changed the more and with sunlight and electricity. Baths oiten a bath should be taken.

may be classified (1) according to the meThe skin can only perform its functions dium used, (2) according to the temperawell if it is kept clean and free from all ture of the medium, (3) according to the putrefactive accumulations; this is accom- purpose of the bath, and (4) according to plished by a liberal use of warm water and the form of bathing appliance. soap. Warm water dissolves dirt much 1. The medium most universally used is quicker and better than cold water; there- water; next in frequentcy is hot air, and fore, a warm bath is required to cleanse the then hot vapor. The use of other media skin and to remove the cast-off scales of is almost entirely restricted to medicinal the cuticle. The alkalies of soap help to baths, which will be mentioned later. dissolve and remove the fatty substances 2. According to the temperature, baths of the dirt crust. But the combined chem- may be classified as follows: ical and mechanical effects of water, soap

Cold: 50°- 70° Fahrenheit. and friction are necessary in order to re

Cool : 70°- 80° Fahrenheit. move the mixture of dirt, skin secretions Tepid: 80° - 90° Fahrenheit, and cuticle scales; to prevent the clogging Warm: 90°-100° Fahrenheit. of the pores, and to promote the proper

Hot: 100°-120° Fahrenheit. functions of the skin.

Higher temperatures exist only in the It is evident, therefore, that the good in

Turkish and Russian baths, where the heat fluence which bathing has upon the health

may vary from 120° to 200° Fahrenheit. is exerted first on the skin itself and

3. According to their purpose, baths are through it upon the tissues and organs of

divided into those taken (a) for cleansing the body. The care of the skin and cleanli

the body, (b) for the maintenance of ness of the body are seldom spontaneous;

health, (c) for bodily exercise, and (d) they must be taught like all other things.

for medicinal purposes. Many people are too indolent to use soap

(a) Baths for cleansing comprise sponge and water, and the entire body bath is not

baths, warm and cold tub baths, tepid taken with sufficient regularity.

douches, showers and sprays; rain baths; The enjoyment of regular, complete sitz, hip and foot baths. bathing of the body should be afforded to

(b) Baths for the general maintenance all classes of the population. It does not


of health comprise sponge baths, tub baths, cost much to keep clean, and there is no

shower baths, wave baths, needle baths, good reason why the poor man should not

Swimming baths, river and sea baths, and be enabled to maintain cleanliness as well

Turkish and Russian baths. as the rich. Indeed, the laboring man

(c) Baths for bodily exercise are taken owing to the nature of his work and to the

in the swimming pools of large bath houses, increased perspiratory action of the skin,

and in the summer time in the river, lake due to muscular exercise, often in the midst of dirty surroundings-is much more sub

(d) Medicinal baths include a large vaject to dirt contamination; and he requires, riety, some of which are mud baths, sand therefore, a more frequent change of un

baths, pine needle, sulphur and brine baths, derwear and also more facilities for bath

sun baths, hot-air baths, Russian baths, ing.

mineral springs or hot springs baths, hyCLASSIFICATION OF BATHS.

Kiropathic baths, including wet packs, asIn a broad sense, bathing may be defined cending, descending and side douches or as the contact of the skin, during a more combinations of these, and Scotch douches. or less continued period of time, with any 4. According to the form of bathing ap

or sea.

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