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form, and, sweeping aside such inconsider- minutes i liau been commissioned straight able items as hours ticked off by clocks, be- away to see wrs. Eva IcLaren, "of Enggan to speak with us, and we all floated Tanu, nominated International Secretary, away on the wings of her eloquence from and urge her irom that meeiing to form a mere mundane surroundings into realms National Council or Women of Grea! of delight. Inspired by the International Britain and Ireland, preparatory to attiliaIdea, she emphasized her belief in the one- tion with the International Council. ness of the world, and even of all worlds. This upon my return to London I did, She had conceived of a vast sisterhood of and Mrs. Eva McLaren invited me to act women of all peoples, of all lands--meet- as Hon. Secretary to a provisional coming together, speaking with one another, mittee, which ultimately, in conference learning from one another, becoming with representatives of the National Union known to one another, working for the of Women Workers, decided to extend tire blessed ideal of kindness to one another, Constitution of that Union, by forming it and to this federal idea she had given governing body of affiliated societies oi the title of the International Council women and branches; and this organizaof Women. Five years before in Wash- tion, under the title of the National Counington she had delivered her message and cil of Women of Great Britain and Ireland, formed the nucleus of the International has long since formed a part of the great Council, by associating together a few kin- International Council of Women, dred spirits into the National Council of So far, well. Women of the United States.

But what of the nurses? Year by year From this meeting she told us we must all over the world their usefulness to the all go forth-even to the uttermost parts community and their own professional of the earth we must presently go—and needs grow and grow. How find time or teach the lesson of the common right of interest to deal with them effectively in a a humanity to communion, participation, and general assembly? It did not appear possi

, fellowship. How infinitesimal are worlds ble. Why not commune together? For spheres-even the whole universe- Of all classes of women the trained how pale, inert, how lifeless, deprived of nurse is least tied and bound by environthe affluence of human feeling! The spir- ment. Sick humanity in the past, and now itual and intellectual forces of love and in addition how to prevent sickness, is her learning, the germ of the Divine in man, universal sphere of action. Truly it has are these not forces through which worlds been said that there is no nationality in are enlightened and kept sane ?

nursing Metaphorically she should fly Thus spoke May Wright Sewall, apostle around, oblivious of geographical and and prophet.

spherical boundaries. Wherever she alights She ceased speaking.

there, ready to hand, her work awaits her Then matters of business were discussed. ---need of the sanitary law, eugenics, home Councils must be formed in every coun- making, child tending, and mind training. try in the world, and those present must Always-always first, prevention of injurgo out and do it. Names were tossed ious environment, then body building. All about-international officers nominated. to have a sufficiency of earth, air, fire and

Suddenly, smiling upon me in my far water, elemental human rights. Then uncorner in her enticing way, she said: "I ceasing war on human greed, body maimwas aware whilst speaking of a personali- ing, and spirit crushing, through wealth

, ty in this room very much in sympathy worship. Also, if disease creeps in, and with the International Idea."

accidents happen, every nurse must pos“That is so." I answered. Someone in- sess fundamental knowledge-theory and troduced us, and suffice it to say in a few practice hand in hand, fine trained skill. mental and manual, so that, trained, won- over and make them articulate. Rooted in derful, indispensable, she may outpour of the graduate vote, the nursing tree branchher treasures all the time—it matters not es into Leagues and Alumnæ Associations, where.

blossoms by delegation into National CounWhy not encircle the world with the cils, inclusive of Superintendents' and sympathetic touch of such a Sisterhood? Nurses' Associations, the ripe fruit of

“Let us do it," I said to Isla Stewart. which is seen in the work of the Interna“Let us,” she answered in her buoyant tional Council of Nurses-in time to be way.

composed, we hope, of the delegates of So it came about that when the Inter- national associations from every civilized national Council of Women held its Quin- country in the world. quennial Meeting in London in 1899, the The decisions arrived at in general asSpirit of Internationalism was in our midst. sembly by a body of nurses so constituted, We invited its presence, and at the An- and representative of all shades of opinion, nual Meeting of the Matrons' Council, at must necessarily receive consideration and which foreign nurses were present, I pro- respect. Ultimately no doubt the Internaposed “That steps be taken to organize an tional Council of Nurses will become the International Council of Nurses." The deliberative assembly, and supreme court resolution was seconded from the chair. by of appeal of the nursing world. the late Miss Isla Stewart and unanimous- The movement has surprising vitality. ly adopted.

In thirteen years the International FederaThe constitution as adopted was pre- tion will be composed of the nurses of faced by the following preamble:

Great Britain and Ireland, the United "We, nurses of all nations, sincerely be- States of America, Germany, Canada, lieving that the best good of our profes- Holland, Denmark, Finland, India and sion will be advanced by greater unity of New Zealand in the precedence in which thought, sympathy, and purpose, do here- they have affiliated. ,

they have affiliated. Its inspiration has, by band ourselves into a confederation of however, gone far, far further afield. The workers to further the efficient care of the Cologne Congress will be attended by frasick, and to secure the honor and the in

ternal delegates from Australasia, Africa, terests of the nursing profession."

and Japan, France, Italy, Austria, HunRealizing that professions, like nations, gary, Switzerland, Belgium and Sweden. can only flourish by the development of Is it not wonderful? the individual sense of corporate responsi- Now I know why, though not how it bility, the first aim of the International was I sat alone all those hours waiting for Council of Nurses was, through the af- the coming of one of the world's most filiation of National Associations adopt- spiritual teachers-May Wright Sewalling graduate suffrage as a fundamental on that summer's morning in Chicagoprinciple, to organize nurses all the world

so many years ago.—ETHEL G. FENWICK.

BABY'S EAR-RINGS. Just why the poor baby should sport a gienic significance of this procedure and his pair of ear-rings in this practical age prob- report in a German periodical is reviewed ably no one could explain. It is true, just for the Archives of Pediatrics, from which the same, that the practice of piercing we quote: baby's ears has survived from an earlier stage, and our district nurses will encount

Very little has been said about the dan

ger of ear-rings in infants. Infections of er such cases occasionally. Epstein has

all kinds and severe cases of eczema may been making investigations into the hy

result from the wound which has been

made during ear piercing in infants. Ep- A relic of barbarism is this custom, withstein reports a few cases from the literature out a doubt. Now that we are sparing no in which it has been conclusively shown that tuberculosis may result from ear

pains to keep babies clean inside and out, piercing. He also reports two cases which let us be vigilant in cases where the baby he had observed and which had developed is liable to be imposed upon in this outtuberculosis in this same way (infection from ear-piercing).

rageous way.

IO

Questions and Answers. The answers to the following questions are not official. They are prepared for the editor.

UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK.

18th Nurses Examination. ANATOMY AND PILYSIOLOGY.

contractions by which the alimentary canal Tuesday, June 25, 1912--9:15 a. m. to

propels its contents.

8. Where do the nerve impulses that 12:15 p. m., oniy.

control our unconscious acts arise ? Answer 10 of the following questions. dns. In the nerve centers of the brain Each complete answer will receive

and spinal cord. credits. Papers entitled to 75 or more 9. What are the two reserve forces of credits will be accepted.

the body that maintain life when a person 1. What organs are contained in the is deprived of food for a time? thoracic cavity ?

Ans. When deprived of food, the body Ans. The heart, lungs, aorta and its maintains its energy (or "forces") by primary branches, the vene cavæ, trachea, using up its reserve material first and then esophagus, thoracic duct, pneumogastric,

its own tissues. Muscles and fats are the phrenic and splanchnic nerves, lymph nodes chief sources of energy after the reserve and lymphatic vessels.

food materials are all spent. There are no 2. What organs are contained in the ab- “reserve forces.” dominal cavity ?

10. Describe a simple reflex act and Ans. Stomach, intestines, liver, gall

liver, gall- mention the two nerve impulses necessary bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, adrenals, to produce it. abdominal aorta, inferior vena cava, recep

Ans. The hand is burned by accidental taculum chyli, thoracic duct, lymphatic contact with a hot object and instantly nodes and vessels, pneumogastric and

drawn away.

An afferent impulse goes splanchnic nerves, uterus and bladder from the burned skin to a reflex center in when distended.

the spinal cord and an efferent impulse 3. What organs are contained in the pel- passes immediately from the center to the vic cavity?

muscles used in moving the arm. Ans. Uterus, ovaries, vagina, bladder, II. What is synovial fluid ? urethra, rectum, prostate, splanchnic Ans. The viscid liquid in joint cavities nerves, lymphatic nodes and vessels.

and tendon sheaths. 4. What is the name given to the solid 12. What is the difference between inparticles contained in the blood ?

spired air and expired air? Ans. Corpuscles.

Ans. Inspired air is normally cool, rich 5. Where is the deltoid muscle situated in oxygen and poor in carbon dioxid and and what is its function?

watery vapor. Expired air is warmer, Ans. It originates on the clavicle and poorer in oxygen and richer in vapor, carscapula, covers the point of the shoulder bon dioxid and animal exhalations. and is inserted in the humerus; it raises the 13. Explain why care of the teeth is imarm to a right angle and draws it forward portant. or slightly backward.

Ans. To prevent the accumulation of 6. By what process is energy produced ? mineral salts and decaying food particles, Ans. Bv oxidation of foods and tissues. both of which lead to infection of the 7. Define peristalsis.

mouth and alimentary tract and deterioraAns. A series of successive muscular tion of the teeth.

14. What is periosteum?

hering firmly to the skin. When the skin dins. The fibrous tissue forming the is well congested with blood the cup is outer sheath of bone and effecting its nu- removed. trition and growth.

5. What symptoms would lead you to 15. Give the number and the location of suspect apoplexy? Give nursing treatment the maxillary bones.

of apoplexy. Ans. Two superior maxillary bones form Ans. Unconsciousness, full, slow pulse, the whole of the upper jaw; one inferior stertorous breathing, cyanosis, pupils dilatmaxillary bone forins the lower jaw. ed and unequal. Elevate the head slightly, MEDICAL NURSING AND NURSING OF CHIL

loosen all the clothing, apply cold to the

head and heat to the extremities, give no DREN.

stimuiants, keep the room cool, dark and Tuesday, June 25, 1912–9:15 a. m. to

quiet. 12:15 p. m., only.

6. What adverse symptoms should a 1. Mention two important measures to

nurse watch for in diphtheria? be observed in the care of fever patients. Ans. Difficult breathing, heart failure, State why these measures are necssary. stupor, marked weakness.

Ans. Bathing, because it cleanses the 7. Define (a) tympanitis, (b) syncope, skin of excretory impurities and relieves (c) aneurism. all the other excretory organs of a part of Ans. (a) Inflammation of the middle their work, thus reducing the amount of ear; (b) fainting ; (c) the sac made by lopoison retained in the body; it also moder- cal dilation of an artery and containing ates the temperature and stimulates the blood. nervous system. Feeding, because fever is 8. What excretions would you disinfect a wasting disease and it is necessary to in nursing (a) typhoid fever, (b) scarlet supply enough of the right diet to maintain fever? State germicides used in each case. the bodily strength and resist the progress Ans. (a) All excretions, with 10 per of the disease.

cent. chlorinated lime; (b) chlorinated lime 2. What nursing measures could be for all the excretions, and an antiseptic used to relieve sleeplessness?

inunction of the skin. Ans. A lukewarm bath or pack shortly

9. Mention three important nursing before bedtime; friction over the whole points to be observed in the management of body, especially the spine ; a light supper; nephritis and uremia. avoidance of tea, coffee and other stimu- Ans. Keep the bowels open. Keep the lants; plenty of cool, fresh air in the sleep- skin active by hot packs and sweats. Give ing room.

milk diet. 3. What prophylactic measures should be 10. What are the principal requisites in used in caring for tuberculosis patients ? the care of rachitic children?

Ans. All sputum should be collected and Ans. Fresh air, sunshine, cool baths folburned. Patient's beard and moustache lowed by friction, good general hygiene. should be shaven. All articles used by the The diet should be plain and nutritious, patient in any way should be disinfected with a large proportion of proteids and fats. or burned as soon as removed from the pa- Exercise should be carefully regulated to tient's presence.

Patient should sleep favor weak bones and muscles and prevent alone, and should not be intimate with deformity. children or others who are highly suscepti- 11. What are the chies causes of summer ble to the disease. The nurse should wash diarrhea in children? her own hands and face frequently and Ans. Artificial feeding, foolish feeding, avoid the contamination of her clothing by and food contaminated by flies, dust, dirt the patient.

and other sources of bacterial infection ; 4. What forms of counter-irritation are sometimes exposure to sudden changes of usually prescribed for the chest? Give temperature. method of applying one of these forms. 12. What advice would you give a moth

Ans. Hot applications, sinapisms, cun- er with a view to the prevention of summer ping, ironing. In dry cupping, a half- diarrhea in children? dozen cupping-glasses or other glasses are Ans. Feed them regularly with fresh and wet inside with alcohol which is then wholesome foods, avoid constipation, and burned out: when the alcohol is burned out extremes of heat and cold: keep them clean' the cun is inverted upon the skin, forming keep flies and dust away from food and use a partial vacuum as the air cools and ad- a safe drinking water.

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13. Till the arrival of the physician how 7. What is the great danger in giving would you manage a case of spasmodic chloral?

a croup in a child two years old ?

8. State the dose of (a) bismuth subniAns. Apply hot compresses to the throat trate, (b) aromatic spirit of ammonia. and give a hot foot bath. Induce vomiting, 9. Give the meaning of each of the folif possible. Give steam inhalations. lowing abbreviations: c, or cum, ad lib.,

14. Describe a proper method of applying hot fomentations to the eye.

10. What is a volatile substance? Ans. Use water as hot as the eye can 11. What are the symptoms of overdosbear without blistering and wring com- ing with mercury? presses as dry as possible by using rubber 12. What foods may not be given at the gloves or a stupe wringer. Change com- same time with calomel? Why? presses frequently for ten or twenty min- 13. What is tlie difference between an inutes and anoint the eye with a bland, sterile fusion and a decoction? emunction until the compresses are applied 14. What is an alkaloid? again.

15. What is a tincture? 15. What are the important points to re

GENITO-URINARY NURSING. member in nursing paralysis?

For Male Nurses. Ans. Absolute rest, physical and mental, is important; all emotional disturbance is

1. What is the vas deierens ? harmful. The best of hygienic conditions

2. How would you administer mercurial must be maintained. Care is needed to

ointment? avoid burning or injuring the paralyzed

3. What is the lithotomy position : parts. Bed sores must be guarded against.

4. What is an anal fissure?

5. How would you give a sitz bath? MATERIA MEDICA.

6. What is the specific gravity of normal Wednesday, June 26, 1912–9:15 a. m. to

urine?

7. For what is a suspensory bandage 12:15 p. m., only.

used? Answer 10 of the following questions. 8. In irrigating an ordinary case of Each complete answer will receive 10

cystitis in an adult what size catheter would credits. Papers entitled to 75 or more credits will be accepted.

9. Define paraphimosis. 1. What is a drug idiosyncrasy?

10. What are the symptoms of cystitis? 2. Why should oils not be given after II. Define hematocele. carbolic acid poisoning?

12. Name the inale organs of generation. 3. Mention five parts by which medicine 13. What is the spermatic cord? may enter into the circulation.

14. What symptoms characterize gonor4. The adult dose of a drug is five min

rhea ? ims; find the dose for a child two years old.

15. Define phimosis, 5. State how you would prepare the Write your own answers to these quesabove dose for the child.

tions and compare them with the answers 6. Define carminative, diaphoretic, es- to be given in the next number of the charotic, hemostatic.

GAZETTE.

you use?

CORRESPONDENCE

LETTERS for publication and requests for information must always be accompanied by the name and address of the author, which will not be published without the author's consent. We have but one place for anonymous communications, viz., the waste basket. DEAR EDITOR:

The GAZETTE is read by a large number Your "Salutatory” in the September of doctors and nurses in this and in other number of THE GAZETTE, has given me States; and the opinion of an eminent courage to ask you to write an editorial physician like yourself could not fail to giving your opinions in regard to certain carry a convincing influence. nursing problems set forth in this letter. We nurses of this State have no regis

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