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ures a liquid, or a grocer weighs sugar, or

page of a book.

We ask him to repeat a mathematician works out his figures. the first line of the first poem or other The value, especially to a doctor, of a writing that comes into his head, noting method which can reduce such an abstrac- the time he requires to begin speaking. tion to definite terms can scarcely be over- After this, we test his memory by giving estimated.

him a number of ideas of our own, and Let us take an abstraction not too com- asking him to put as many of them as he plicated to work out here, and show how remembers, and as quickly as he can, into psychology approaches these wonderful words of his own; and these results also results.

we accurately record. We will consider the much-argued ques- There are countless other tests that can tion of alcohol, and its effects upon an in- be given to the subject, each one of which, dividual. Does whiskey make a person in its results, may throw a little light on more brilliant or less so: Formerly we the probleni of this individual's mind-conhad no exact proofs on this queston, either tent in its normal condition, the sum of all for or against, and supporters of either of them putting him before us in all his side could always be found in great num- nakedness; but those given here suffice to bers, some interpreting their experience as give the method employed. indicating the affirmative, and others the Having been tested in all these particunegative. And then we were bothered lars while in the normal condition, the subwith the matter of the personal equation. ject now is given similar tests while under One man seemed to be affected in one the influence of a given dose of alcohol. way, and another in some other. Also in The sums of the results of this and the prevarying degrees, and all men differently un- ceding test are compared, with all the cerder different circumstances. Some were

tainty and accuracy of a mathematical held to be made more brilliant, and some problem; and we now find, in this man's less so, by the use of alcohol; but how case, that certain differences are manifest much more or how much less, or in what between the normal and the alcoholic conway or ways, it has been left to experi- dition of mind. mental psychology to determine with exact- Next we go through the tests with other ness, and this it does as follows:

men, and find, as a result, without a single

exception, that the only sense in which any PRACTICAL APPLICATION

or all of them can be said to show inSCIENCE.

creased brilliance, under the influence of To first ask the subject, any given per- alcohol, is in relation to outer images, son, to go, in his norinal condition, through things, objects of space and time, supera series of mental cperations, measuring ficials, and these for a few minutes only, his speed in terms of a thousandth of a after which the mind drops back to a second. We give him a common sum in slower rate of operating than before. Ideas, addition, noting accurately the time he initiative, mental accuracy, determination, consumes in finding the answer. Then we are dulled almost to the point of extincpass him a list of fifty words, and he is

tion, depending on the quantity of the alrequested to read them to himself, at the cohol ingested. same time speaking instantly the first word

Now the question is answered in definite suggested to him by the sight of each word

terms. Nobody could be present during in the list, and we mark the nature of the the tests, and understanding fully the methspoken word, as well as the time employed ed, without acknowledging the accuracy in thinking what word to speak. Then we and the value of results. And no sooner measure the celerity and accuracy with has the method become plain, than the which he counts the number of words on a physician sees how, in innumerable cases








do of an egg:

in his profession, he could employ the course, of that of a man.

lf the man hapsame, or the various principles involved, pens to be a peculiar-appearing one, that to his and his patients' great advantage. peculiarity will act upon our memory as

' It would not be necessary to follow out all does the white oval of the egg, and we the devious ramifications of the tests. A shall remember both the man and his name comprehension of the principles involved the better. But the name of the ordinary, would prove sufficient. The personal ap- common-looking person, with nothing to plication of them would take care of them- point either the name or himself off from selves when the occasion should arrive. the every-day run of people, will pass easi

An interesting and valuable item of the ly from our recollection, even though his subject, taken at its very root, is referred face may be recognized as one we have to thus by W. H. Walker, in the work seen somewhere, because sights impress mentioned above:

themselves more deeply on the mind than The basic condition of clear thinking is, sounds do. that it shall be conducted through the medium of a series of images. That is,

ASSOCIATION IDEAS, the closer any thought in the mind is con

MNEMONICS. nected by the thinker with a concrete object, with an image, the clearer will be his The remedy of this forgetfulness, which thought of it, the more accurately and the psychology points out, is this: Think of the longer will he remember it.

man, when you first hear his name, in

terms of images, or of an image, as you A CONCRETE ILLUSTRATION.

If his name be Dyer, picTake, as an illustration, the name of a

ture to yourself, say, in connection with man to whom you have just been intro- his face, a dyer of cloth, stained with dye, duced, on the one hand, and the name working about his variously colored vats, “egg,” on the other. We have no difficulty with the smell of ammonia in the air, and in remembering the word “egg,” but it is all that sort of thing, creating as many of a very common occurrence for us to forget these images as you can; for, the greater the man's name. Why? Psychology the number of these creations of yours, the answers that it is because the word “egg" surer and the longer will be your recollecis associated in our mind with an image; tion of the name and the face. Every with a concrete, tangibic fact; with an time you see this individual, these images oval, white, shell-covered object—so that (some of them at least) will flash instanin our effort to recall its name we have the

taneously upon you, and actually force you assistance of at least two senses, sight and to remember that the name is Dyer. The hearing. We hear the name, and see the principle of imaging once thoroughly esobject, and thus the power of the one sense tablished in the mind, the practice of it is re-enforced by the power of the other. becomes easy; and, with continued practice, Whenever we hear the word "egg," a sight it finally runs into automatic or reflex of a white oval appears to the mind's eye, action, carried on without conscious effort, by association of ideas, and, as long as we building up in due season a prodigious remember the one, we can scarcely fail to memory, which will forget nothing that it remember the other, the association of the wishes to remember sight and the sound having once been es- This method of imaging is so simple tablished in our mind.

and so easily put in force that it has only However, the man's name--say Dver- to be known in order to supplant all others has no such association of sight to us. as a system of mnemonics, for it is wellThere is simply the bare word, that means nigh infallible in this respect. But, more nothing: for it is connected with no spe- than this, it leads directly to a right culticific sight in our thoughts, beyond, of vation of the mind. That a man is what

we are con

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his memory is—that what we remember, at his best, which state should, by law, what we think and know, is what we are dominate all the others-although too oi-has always been known.

ten seemingly dominated by the lower

and points out accurately the means of reMAN IS WHAT HE REMEMBERS.

storing the equilibrium wherever it has beEvery object of sense and every idea with come disturbed. which we come in contact takes its color When Goethe said, "All the faults I see and significance, so far as

in others I might myself have committed," cerned, from the ability or disability of our he indicated his reason for the belief by own mind. Therefore, to cultivate this means of statements that appealed only to habit of creating images, which strength- the learned or the cultivated. Psychology, ens the memory, and gives power to our on the other hand, making the same statedormant faculties of invention, is to in- ment, proceeds with rule and measure to crease our stature as men.

This in turn,

prove its stand, succeeding in doing so in as W. H. Walker shows, increases the good terms that cannot be controverted—terms of other people, of the Not-Self, a service which, indeed, nobody could even wish to which in turn re-acts on our Self, and so controvert. And this science goes on to on and on without end. It is the old formu- prove, also by rule and measure, why a la of culture, that the chief end of man is Goethe did not commit these sins, and why “to learn and disinterestedly to propagate others did, at the same time informing the best that has been thought and known those others by what definite, easy, sure in all ages,” only that now, with the aid methods they may avoid committing them. of psychology, we are able to put the rea

PSYCHOLOGY AN AID TO RIGHT LIVING. son why into definite terms, terms that must force conviction on every mind that For example: As all men, in the process follows the proofs, however stubborn and of evolution from the form of formless ignorant the Ego behind that mind may be.

. protoplasm to that of human being, have Where formerly only the already culti- at one time been in the mind-state of a vated could become more so, here now, by simian, and as theft, for instance, is a fa

, the aid of psychology, the uncultivated culty inseparable from a simian mind-state, may begin at the very bottom of the cul- it follows (by the rule that the higher tural ladder, and work his way to the sum- springs from the lower, which still persists mit, round by round, intelligently, easily, in the body, though it should be dominated swiftly, carrying the world on his should

by the higher) that all men are born, as ers; and this, too, with efforts that are

men, with the faculty of theft. The possicnly pleasurable in the exercise.

bility of theft lies in all men as a part of Psychology, with the well-known and al- their very being. This state of knowledge ready proven dictum of Professor Joseph is the point where Goethe paused to state Le Conte, that "the higher springs from that he might have committed theft. He and then dominates the lower," takes us might have, because the faculty of theft by the hand, and leads us, by ravishingly was innate in him, as in all men. beautiful ways, into a "doctrine of un- Then, why did Goethe not beconie a speakable comfort.” It shows, step by step, thief? Why do not all men become the process by which bodies ascended (and thieves ? And why do some, and not othnow ascend, for the process is always in ers? Psychology answers and proves its

— operation) through all the various stages truth by weight and measure that there from protoplasm to man, carrying along is also born in man among all the numerwith them the attributes aud faculties of all ous other faculties, that of inhibition. the lower orders through which they had These faculties being cultivatable, it will passed into the highest estate, that of man depend upon which one is most cultivated

whether an individual becomes a thief, or of the medicine which alone can heal him, one in whom the inhibitory impulse against and restore him to the ranks of upright theft is so strong that he really could not manhood, and to our own betterment as steal. And it then goes on to prove how well as his own. the one or the other tendency may either Physicians themselves were the first to be cultivated or killed. And so with every recognize the truth and value of this attifaculty of the mind and body, from the tude. While society at large, for example, stolid inertia of protoplasm, which so many

regarded a criminal as a beast, an ugly men cultivate by indulgence, through all animal to be confined where he could do no the changes of animal, vegetable, and hu- harm, and left to rot back into his primal man life, reaching to spirituality itself. state of inanimate matter, the man of

Every man is born with the character- medicine, through observations and experiistics still within him of all the lower or- ments, and experiments that were directly ders through which he has passed. It is in line with the processes of modern psyfrom them that he inherits his passion and chology-processes which doubtless formhis loves, his fears and his hates, his capaci- ed the very beginnings of that marvelous ties for happiness and for misery, for suc- science-arrived at the conclusion that the cess and failure; and psychology shows by criminal was a sick man and brother, to be exact weight and measure how each of treated as such rather than as an ugly outthese may be increased and strengthened, cast. And the results are showing to-day, with attending atrophy and death of its not only in all the prisons of civilized counopposite.

tries, but outside of the prisons, in the

ranks of society itseif, which latter at last THE NEW HUMANITY.

has begun to adopt the views advanced by Not the least of the innumerable bene- the pioneer doctors. To begin right is a fits to be derived from an intimate knowl- large part of the battle, and psychology edge of these processes is that of the flood shows us by weight and measure just how of light thrown upon the proper method to begin and proceed. by which to approach the stronghold of any


Psychology, proving to us that “all the world is just like our own A physician for example, who is also a family,” that other men are indeed only psychologist, approaches his patient, not as ourselves in other forins, paves the way an entity, not as a person to be healed for our love and our spirit of helpfulness, merely of the disease with which at the where formerly we were able to feel only moment he is afflicted; for he looks upon disgust or condemnation. When we have him as a part of the Not-Self to which he it indubitably proved to us that the man can do a service, a service which by the who is injuring us, or others, or himself, very nature of service-as is proved by is doing so merely because he is ignorant, psychology-must re-act upon himself and and not because he really wishes to injure all men. It is an opportunity for him to anybody; when it is shown that in his grow in stature mentally, and to benefit struggle for existence, along with us, his the world, however slight the specific benebrothers, and other-selves, he simply has fit may be. The disease, to him, is the missed the right road, has missed cultivat- voice of mankind heard in the wilderness, ing the right faculties, and is sick and crying out to be set in the right path. frantic with failure-while we fancy we This portion of it, this man, has cultivated have cultivated rightly, and are healthy a certain faculty too much, and has not with succcess, we may approach him in a cultivated some other one enough. Through spirit, which, as psychology proves, is the ignorance, he has disturbed his equilibrifirst necessary ingredient. the very base um, the equilibrium of mankind; and it is the doctor's task to restore this balance, being that he, himself, inust become stagand to destroy the ignorance that caused nant in this direction, like a horse-pond the defection.

filled with lilies, incapable either of receivIt is not the disease alone that the true ing or conferring possible benefits. The physician will treat. He does not there- case is over with when he has employed fore prescribe drugs alone, but adds pa- mechanics upon it. Yes—in very deed, by tience, kindliness, friendliness—in a word, an inexorable law, known and proved by love-in order to continue the process of the psychologist, the case is over with, in healing in other ways, even after the pres- so far as he is concerned, albeit not in the ent affliction shall be past. He wishes to way he ignorantly fancies. He fails to confer all the benefit he may; and he knows realize that he never will receive any that the disease is a symptom, a sign mere- further benefit from this incident. ly of the real trouble, which is behind in But the doctor who is a psychologist apthe mind. It is a sign that the man enter- proaches his patient with a mind accustains certain notions that are hurting him, tomed to the beauty of creating images. and it is these notions tliat are to be cor- Not only this, but he regards the patient rected, in order that the healing may be as a portion of the Not-Self to which he is permanent, thus conferring upon the sick called upon to a service. He has to heal man a kind of intelligent health, which he a disease. Yes; but he also has to premay enjoy himself, and communicate to vent future disease, if he can, both for his others as well.

own good and the patient's as well. The And it is, indeed, all very simple. There first image that occurs to him is probably is no shadow of mystery about it, nothing that of some food, which, ignorantly taken of the so-called occult. The logic mounts by the patient, has brought on appendicitis. irrefutably, round by round, from the bot- By questions or other methods, he discovtom of the ladder, which rests on solid, ers, say, too much roast spare-rib as the gross, tangible materiality (money, for foundation of the trouble. Then he proinstance), and extends to and into the very ceeds to relieve, as best he can, the present skies, as may be shown by an example. symptoms, but goes on to place such images

before the sick man, that the latter will ACTION AND RE-ACTION.

never suffer in the saine manner again. Suppose a man calls in a doctor, saying In other words, the doctor, by aid of his he is sick, and does not know what is the acquired power in image-making, will be matter, and the doctor finds that the able to place before the patient the evil of trouble is appendicitis. One method of eating too much spare-rib in such convinchealing would be to remove the appendix, ing lights that the very mention of the pocket the fee, and clepart, as the carpenter word "spare-rib” thereafter will be repeldoes in pursuing his trade. In this way the lent to him. patient is relieved, exchanging money for During this process oi instruction, if the ease. He stays in bed a few days, be- doctor conducts it in the proper spirit, the comes strong, then goes his way as before, patient will learn how to live properly, but with no gain of intelligencec, of man- and to acquire a deep sense of his doctor's stature. And the inechanical doctor also intelligence, his methods, and his disingoes his way as before, unconscious of the terestedness, which he cannot help impartmonumental fact, that, by stopping shorting to others, in some degree, from whom at the mechanical phase of his profession, in turn, again, will come the re-action on he not alone has stultified himself, but has the doctor bimself in various ways—in inblocked up the stream of word-intelligence, creased practice, for one thing, if he really which it should have been his highest de- is fitted for his place. But, above all, it sire to clear of all obstructions; the result will come in the oneness that he has es

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