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giene and Demography, in which eugenics age illegitimate baby is stronger and a plays an important part. Among private more perfect specimen physically than his charities the McCormick Foundation of less handicapped brother. Is it because, Chicago and the Russell Sage Foundation like Ishmael, his hand must be strong to of New York City are devoting their funds fight? The basis of the matter lies in a and best workers to the study of mortality simple physiological fact, he is the first and infant welfare. The death rate of in- born of a young, vigorous mother, the fants has been cut in two in some enlight- first fruit of an overwhelming desire. To ened communities by instruction in hy- save the child thus socially handicapped is giene, and public supervision. If enlight- the aim of the Open Door Department. enment can save half the babies and ig- One means toward this end is to keep a norance kill the other half, is there not nursing mother with her child. If the encouragement for the reminder of the mother can give her child milk for the first work?

six months of its life, the child is ten I hope the time will soon come when it times likelier to live than a bottle fed baby. will be considered a crime to allow any The crux of the matter lies in providing mother the care of a child unless she has shelter and support for the mother during been thoroughly instructed, and when in this period. cases of these illegitimate babies the moth- Every mother and child is a potential er be given a chance to nurse and care for family unit. Where it can be done with the child instead of turning it adrift, a a reasonable degree of happiness, a marwaif and a charge of the state.

riage between the parents is effected. It is an incontestable fact that the aver- Often a deserter is compelled by law to

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support his child. In the case of a girl majority of the cases, it seeks to develop too young to marry, her family is urged the mother into a self-respecting, selfto assume the responsibility that realiy be- supporting member of society. Most of all longs to it in caring for both the mother it seeks to save to the state the babies that and the child. When all these methods are too often sacrificed to ignorance or fail the mother is given an opportunity to false pride. “It is not the babies born but

a living The most satisfactory the babies saved that count.” openings at present are in domestic service, where the scarcity of workers has created a demand resulting in a fair liv- "A

MAN has two powerful instincts ing wage. By careful investigation by our which govern his whole life and give the Social Service Department, really helpful first impulse to ali his actions; the instinct homes are found for both mother and of self-preservation and the instinct of racechild, sometimes as wet nurse, more often preservation.” on a farm. If the mother can be provided with the necessities of life during this "All men are naturally virtuous; that period, she is pretty sure to want to keep is to say, that when they derive no pleasthe child, and so a service is rendered not ure nor benefit from vice, virtue is more only to humanity, but to the state, in de- delightful to them than vice.” creasing the number of dependent children.

The aim of the work is simple—wherever possible to bring about a marriage “A vast and deep river is not rendered between the parents or to compel the fath- turbid by throwing into it a stone. That er to support his child. Where this is not religious man who can be vexed at an inpossible, and unfortunately this forms the jury is as yet a shallow brook.”

SOME HINTS ON NURSING. The apartments of the invalids must be replacing them with others from various kept scrupulously clean-purity must parts of the house. Remove the bric-abreathe in the atmosphere. The bed must brac, which becomes wcarisome after a be immaculate, and the patient must be time and put in its place vases of sweet, frequently bathed and rubbed, so as to keep bright flowers. Bring the bird in for the skin in a healthy condition. Some a while if the patient is not suffering from persons seein to think that soap and water headache, and so direct the attention to are sure death to a sick person, while in things cheerful and pleasant. reality there are few diseases where such Try to entertain the suffering ones; is the case. We do not mean that we

banish all thoughts of business, and let no should plunge a desperately ill person into

care of any kind enter the sick room. Read the bath, but when the intensity of the ill

some pleasant paragraph that is not long ness is passed, to sponge the patient every

enough to be tiresome. When the patient day in warm water without removing the

is convalescing, be slow to read those things bedclothes, thus protecting them from cold,

which would tire and fatigue him. It is strengthens and refreshes them.

When persons are ill a long time, they important to us all that we should be capanaturally become tired of seeing just the

ble of nursing at least the inmates of our same piece of bric-a-brac in the same

own homes. We daughters, sisters and identical spot week in and week out, and

mothers, however, should not depend upthe too familiar pictures hanging on to

on the profession but should train ourtheir nails forever. Now, the nurse has

selves, for with our superior education and it in her power to relieve to a large ex- intelligence, we should be quick to recogtent, this horrible monotony of view by nize what is best to do for our loved ones occasionally taking the pictures down and when they are prostrated by illness.

THE WOMAN OF THE FUTURE.

Not as a rival to man, but as his in- —the professon is full of boundless possispirer, will the woman of the future take bilities. Let women bring into it their her place in the order of things. Having keen powers of observation, their care for learned precisely what her limitations are, minute details, above all, their shrewd she will move easily along those paths common sense and their faith in simple where they hamper the movements least. and natural remedies. Here alone there In this way she will gradually find out her is work, and to spare, for them. But when true work. What that work will be may be we approach the training of the young we partly guessed at from what she has al- come to the most important work in the ready done in the past. Her heaven-sent world. Not statesmen, or kings and instinct for nursing, her talent as a phys- queens, have a task requiring such foreician, and her genius for training the thought, such eternal vigilance or such deliyoung, are merely various forms of de

cate manipulation as that which falls to velopment arising out of her mother-na- the woman who charges herself with the ture, and in these she will greatly excel. making or marring of the soul of a little At first sight the field may seem somewhat child. Work of this kind may not adverlimited and a level plain at that. But are tise the worker or place her on a pinnacle there no improvements to be made in nurs- of fame, but is none the less sublime. It ing, no alleviations of pain to be discov- is a toiling, not for time, but for eternity. ered? Are insane patients nursed in the And this shall be the woman's part in the best possible way? As for medicine alone" days to come.

NURSING ETHICS.*

By E. MARGARET Fox,

Matron, Prince of Wales's Hospital, Tottenham.

I do not know whether you will agree of our profession, they are rather like rich witi me or not in thinking that at the furniture, left unprotected in the street, present time the ethics of nursing are instead of being stored in some suitable rather in danger of being overlooked. Yet building; like precious jewels thrown into they are to the profession what the Capitol a child's play-box, instead of being placed was to Rome-- what the girdle of sea is to in a casket specially designed for them; England-at once a defense and a safe

like cunningly made and delicate instruguard. Take them away, and what be- ments given into a boy's hands for him to comes of the science and art of nursing ? fashion a rough toy with them, instead of

, From being akin with Heaven, it descends being used by the expert surgeon's trained to grovel in the dust, its white wings fingers for the salvation of the body. Such weighted with sordid ambitions, soiled protection such a setting—such care and

— from contact with baser things, drocping, safeguarding does our profession need topinioned and helpless, instead of strongly day to preserve it in its high integrity and soaring aloft, bearing others as well to hand it on to our successors untarnished purer heights.

and unspoiled. The ethics of nursing must An American writer has recently said: surround all our work as with a wall, high "I wonder if we are not in danger of los- and unscalable, no small gaps being left ing out of the very heart of nursing some- or overlooked through which may enter thing which ennobled the lives of the anything to spoil or disturb. nurses of the past; something which And what are these ethics? We know made them beautiful and greatly to be that every profession has its own system desired! Sometimes I have wondered of moral principles by which it is govif we are not in danger of over-emphasiz- erned; its science of morals, or of conduct ing technical skill and curriculum, of mini- as right and wrong, and this, not apart or mizing the personal qualities, and of losing differing from the universal moral law as what we cannot afford to lose—the spirit embodied in the Ten Commandments, but of vocation, the spirit of hearty devotion rather as a closer application of those laws to duty, the spirit which impels us to go to the peculiar circumstances in the lives to those who need us most—the spirit of of those occupied in these professions. In the Great Healer Himself. We live in a addition, too, there is always found a cercommercial age, when everything almost is tain recognized code of manners, customs spoken of and reckoned in terms of money. and etiquette, inattention to or ignorance Let us be careful how we deal with the of which marks the delinquent at once as commercial side of our work. Let us be an outsider. careful, also, lest the increasing interest in Take, for example, the profession so the scientific aspect of nursing warp in us closely bound up with our own—that of the true nursing instinct."

medicine—and let us notice the high ideals This seems to me all very true. Theory of life and conduct laid down for its memis excellent; practice is good; systems, bers in the ancient Hippocratic Oath. In models, books, lectures, clinics--all the the Toronto Training School that oath is paraphernalia of modern hospital training administered to the nurse on graduation. schools have each their own appointed task I do not know whether this is customary in in the shaping of the nurse; but unless sur- other American schools. I have not heard rounded on all sides by the sterner ethics of any British hospital where it is done;

but I think it could not fail to be beneficial * Reprinted from The Nursing Times.

to probationers to have the oath read over fined to her own thoughts; it must not apto them once at least during their training, pear in her manner or her speech to the and its provisions held up as an ideal for

patient or his friends, but she should enimitation. What applies to the medical pro- deavor to remain professional, without befession almost always applies to nurses as ing in any way insincere. To suggest that well, for the two are on the same ethical an operation should have been performed level.

sooner, or not performed at all; to hint The oath deals with the vow of loyalty. that a patient was not sent into hospital in The person taking it promises solemnly to time to save his life; to speak slightingly be "loyal to the patients entrusted to her of the patient's own medical attendant, but care, and to the physicians under whom in a superlatively adulatory manner of the she shall serve.” What is it to be loyal? specialist called in to consult with him; to It is to be "faithful in allegiance to those wonder audibly why such-and-such a treatover one; true to plighted faith or duty." ment or medicine has not been tried, or Many important things are left to the certain symptoms remarked, is to be guilty judgment and faithfulness of the nurse to of what the General Medical Council calls carry out unseen, unknown by any except “infamous conduct in a professional sense,” her own conscience. The truly loyal nurse where doctors are concerned. It is conwill never try to cover her own sings, neg- trary to all true nursing ethics. Nurses ligences and ignorance with specious may well copy the medical profession in words or untruthful silence; she will not

this matter. It is a rare thing indeed to undermine her patient's confidence in the

hear one doctor run down another's methdoctor by expressing doubt as to the effi

ods or treatment; as a rule, whatever their cacy of his treatment, or by an assumption private opinion may be, they usually stand of superior knowledge, which she does not

shoulder to shoulder by the members of possess.

But she will uphold her phy- their own profession, and a big proof of sician to the patient and the patient's

this solidarity has lately been given in the friends, and will carry out his instructions,

way they have rallied, thousands strong, not only in the spirit, but in the letter, thus

to the call of the opposers of the insurance gaining the confidence of both. She will

biii. find excuses for his little infirmities of tem

Not only to the medical, but to her own per—those trifling lapses of memory, his

profession, is the loyalty of the nurse due; trying mannerisms, perhaps, his little ec

the oath goes on to state that she promises centricities of speech that tempt her possi

to be "just and generous to them, aiding bly to be witty at his expense. Loyalty

them whenever they shall need aid." But is not cervility. "True loyalty to orders

often' nurses will run one another down. cannot be without the independent sense or

Some, while being strictly loyal to all those energy of responsibility which alone se

trained in the same school as themselves, cures real trustworthiness.” I am not saying it is always easy to be

have not a good word for others trained loyal to the doctor; indeed, some doctors

elsewhere. To be “perfectly joined tomake it very hard for the nurse to be so;

gether in the same mind and in the same they being human and the nurse being hu- judgment" is as difficult at the present day man, too, both are liable to err. There are as in the early Christian Church, when the doctors and doctors, just as there are members brought their disputes to the nurses and nurses, and it is unlikely a apostle to settle, some contending that they trained, intelligent nurse will never find were of Paul, others of Apollos, and again anything to criticise in his methods and others of Cephas. Do not let us forget manners. Such criticism must, however, that those trained in the school of Cephas in the interests of ethics, be strictly con- are as likely to be just as good as those of

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