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abridgment of an essay on the treatment and conversion of African Alaves in the British sugar colonies, by Mr. Ramsay. Art. 18. Letters of Neptune and Gracchus, addressed to the

P- of W--, and other distinguished Characters ; now first collected from their original Publication in the Morning Poft. The Second Edition, is. 6d. M. Smith. 1784.

These are bold writers ; but the licence of the press is now a security for any attempt. If the royal personage delerves the cenTure here insinuated, he cannot do better than take advice, which, to do the writer justice, is conveyed in an elegant, nervous, and spiTited style. Art

. 19. The Looking Glass : containing select Fables of La Fontaine, iinitated in English : wițn additional Thoughts. Walter. 1784.

These imitations are in easy flowing verse, and are not destitute of humour, but why drag in the ugly politics of the day? Art. 20. A new Vocabulary of the most difficult Words in the

English Language ; teaching to pronounce them with Ease and Propriety; Thewing their various Significations, and where necessary, are spelled to as to indicate the true Articulation : also,

Names of 'Persons and Places, more particularly those in the New .. Testament: together with several common. Phrases from the Latin

and French, translated into English. The whole accented and arranged in Alphabetical order, and interspersed with Apophthegms, Ancient and Modern, tending to promote Virtue and Knowledge. Wherein is a new method of calculating the Sun's diameter, whereby his horizontal Parallax is determined ; and a Plate annexed, by which may be discovered the Magnitude of the Sun compared with the Earth. Compiled and calculated by William Fry, Teacher of Languages and Mathematical Sciences, 12mo. 25. 6d. Author, St. Martin's le Grand. 1784.

Happily the bum-brusher has so fully displayed his acquaintance with grammatical propriety, and indeed his universal science, in his everlasting title-page, as to render all further critique unnecesfary. Art. 21. An Esay on Draining and Improving Peat Bogs; in

which their Nature and Properties are fully considered. By Mr. Nicholas Turner, of Bignor, Suffex. 8vo. 39. Baldwin. 1784.

Mr. Turner having, in a Preface, touched on the importance and history of agriculture, with equal modesty and conciseness, proceeds to describe the nature, and to demonstrate the advantages of draining peat bogs. Peat, he shews, is a vegetable matter, and in a living itate. It originates, he thinks, from waters impregnated with bitumen, and that the vegetable part of the peat is a species of marsh moss, which grows fpontaneously in waters thus impregnated. Having analyzed the principles of which that substance is compofed, he Mews the various purposes to which it may be applied, as fuel, and as manure. He proceeds to shew the manner, and to estimate the advantages of draining peat-bogs, which are indeed immense. This pamphlet undoubtedly deserves the attention of landholders in marshy countries.

Art. 220

Art. 22. Some Hints in regard to the better Management of the Poor: in a Letter to a noble Lord. Cadell, 15. 1784.

These hints deserve attention. No abuses are so notorious as those here complained of. The writer proposes perpetual Guardians of the poor, in licu of those who take it by rotation, as wardens, &c. Art. 23. Remarks concerning the Government and the Laws of

the United States of America : In Four Letters addrefled to Mr. Adams, Minister Plenipotentiary from the United States of America to those of Holland; and one of the Negociators for the purpose. of concluding a General Peace, from the French of the Abbé de Mably: With Notes by the Translator. 8vo. 45. Debrett. 1784.

We can bestow no applause upon this verfion. The notes, like the text, generally originate in a misunderstanding of the fenfe of the author. There is a strange affectation and an unintelligible fpiendour in the style, which prove, that the manufacturer should never be employed but upon the fruits of his own invention, and never write a period that does not close with a note of admira. tion. Art. 24. Considerations on the National Debt, and Nett Pre

duce of the Revente : with a Plan for consolidating into one Rate the Land and all other Taxes, &c. By a Merchant of London, Dilly, Is. 6d. 1784.

This writer calculated that the interest of the national debt when the whole is funded, which is to be paid annually, is nine millions, that the peace establislıment, civil list, &c: make lix millions more, to pay which we cannot at present command more than 14, 268,1961. but by consolidating all the taxes, customs, excise, &c. into one rate, we raise upwards of seventeen millions. The scheme is drawn up with care,

and appears to us to be plausible. The one rate is on windows. Art. 25. Tales of the Castle: or, Stories of Instruction and

Delight. Being les Veillées du Chateau, Written in French by Madame la Comtesse de Genlis, Author of the Theatre of Education, Adela and Theodore, &c., Translated into English, by Thomas Holcroft. 5 vols. I 2mo. 173. 6d. Robinson, 1785.*

We discern traces of Mr. Holcroft's improvement in the facility and judgment, with , which the idioms of the two languages are affimilated to each other, in the volumes before us.

But we can scarcely restrain our regret at feeing a writer qualified to instruct and amuse the public from his native stores, thus condemned to the tedious and degrading task of translation. Art. 26. The Casket; or Double Discovery: a Novel. the Author of High Life. 2 vols. i2mo. 6s. Lowndes, 1785.

The reader must not expect a Clariffa, with her humble seryant Esquire Lovelace, the imaginary beings of romance. The character of the present volumes are mere plain, downright Enga lish." Such is the author's bill of fare. To this we have only to


* For our account of the original, see vol. iv. p. ?13.


fay, that there is more penetration and valuable knowledge of human nature, in a line of the characters of Lovelace and Clariffa, than the present writer and fifty such authors will ever be able to exhibit in the course of their lives. Art. 27. Bannister's Reports; or a Series of Adjudications

before Lord Chief Juitiee Joker, in his Majesty's High Courts of Wit, Humour, and Fun, Published without authority of the respective Courts, 12mo. Is. 6d. Fielding. 1735.

Many a serious truth' is betrayed by the inadvertence of the man it hurts. Certain it is, that the genuine powers of wit and humour could never have been prevailed upon to authorise such a vile collection of ribaldry, nonsenfe, and absurdities. Art. 28. The Emperor's Claims ; being a Description of the

City of Antwerp, and the river Scheldt. With a concise History of the Auftrian Netherlands. Together with Extracts from the "Articles of the Treaty of Munster, and those of the Barrier Treaty, whereby the Dutch found their Right to the Blocking up of the Scheldt. Interspersed with Remarks on the Rite and Fall of the Trade of Antwerp; and every Thing tending to elucidate the present Subject of Dispute between the Emperor and the Dutch. With a Prefaee, containing different Views of the Enperor's Designs, and an Admonition to the British Government relative to their' Behaviour in the Contest. Adorned with an elegant Map of the river Scheldt ; a View of the City of Antwerp, and all the adjacent Imperial and Dutch Territories. Dedicated to the Emperor. 8vo. 25. 6d. Stockdale. 1785. A petty compilation, drawn up in a moft illiterate style, and fold ar more than double the price ufually affixed to the fame number of pages. Art. 29. A Letter from a Medical Gentleman in Town to his

Friend in the Country; containing an authentic Account of the Difference between the Medical Society of Crane-court, and Dr, Whitehead, &c. 8vo. 6d, March. 1784.

If this be the true state of the case, Dr. Whitehead is a much injured character, and it would be prudent in the Society to give a public vindication of their conduct.

For the EN GLISH REVIE W. POLITICAL' STATE of EUROPE, for the year 1784.

GRE A T BRI TAI N. This year presents to the political observer, Great Britain in a state of entire separation from America ; furveving the ground on which she now ftands, anxious to pięserve and secure what yet remains of her foreigo pofleffions, and to make up for past profufion by future economy. The mode by which theie objects might be be best accomplished, became a subject of contention in parliament, displayed the views of different factions, alarmed all good men for a time, but finally proved the excellence of the British constitution.

The frequent and quick changes of ministry, the political diviSions which continually retarded, and too often obstructed the best laid designs, the want of vigour and unanimity in the public councils, in a word, the feebleness of government, had futficiently indtructed the leaders of opposite parties in the itate, that permanency in office could not be expected from any other system of conduct than a comprehensive coalition. Coalition, roo, in the light of many well-ineaning men, feemed necessary for conducting with expedition and effect the great business of the nation. This was the ground on which Lord North and Mr. Fox publicly defended the novelty of their political concordé ground on which it might indeed have been defended by abilities inferior to theirs, if the measures they concerted had not quickly betrayed a defigni to hold and perpetuate their power independently of any controul that could be reasonably expected to exist ainidit the present corruption of manners.

The public eye penetrated their artful project. Even of those who had approved of their junction, not a few were of opinion that the mischiefs that had fiowed from their discord were yet less than the dangers threatened by their union.'

The history of the Saracens, of Venice, of Portugal, of Holland, and of England, proves that whatever nation poliesses the commerce of the East, poflefies also a fuperiority in respect of wealth and naval greatness. Similar advantages, it was obvious, would accrue to whatever faction should be able to grasp the riches and the patronage of India.

“Give me,” said Archimedes, which to fix my foot, and I will wield this world at pleasure." With the treasures of Bengal it seemed not impossible to manage the Commons of England. With one foot on Indoftan it seemed not imposfible for a man of subtle and of daring genius to move or controył Great Britain with the other.

Ever since the establishment of the Hanoverian succession, the House of Commons had appeared to every eye as the preponderating branch in the British government. The confidence of the Come mons could exalt the opponent, or degrade the favourite of the court from the highest offices. The new allies possessed abilities, eloquence, and numerous adherents fixed to their political principles by public profeflions, and attached to their persons by long habits of friendship. Hereditary wealth and honours, too, were on their fide, and seemed to consolidate all their advantages into one aristocratical phalanx. Fortified by talents, by numbers, and by noble names, Mr. Fox, with the privity and approbation of Lord North, fabricated a bill for regulating the commerce, and governing the terTitorial property of Great Britain in India, which indeed had a vigour in it well adapted to the purpose of retaining our foreign poffeffions in subjection, but ill calculated to maintein internal liberty:

The powers of coercion, and prompt execution vetted in a council for the government of India, were well suited to that object : but as that council was to be chosen by a inajority in the House of Com. mons, and to be responsible only to those

who chose them and as the members of that council were to hold their offices at least for



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four years (a space that must bring on a new parliament) a foundation was laid for a collufion which would infallibly have trampled on all the forms of government, and have set the power of the laws af defiance. The patronage annexed to the government of our dominions in the East, is immense. It is computed even to exceed that of the executive government of Great Britain. A power of nominating persons to fill offices, and to hold contracts, would have befowed on the commissioners for governing India, the means of a molt extensive influence, which would have been exerted agreeable to the inclinations of that majority in the House of Cominons, who were at once their creators and their judges ; while rich presents, and seats in parlianient purchased by their Afiatic clients, would have swelled the tide of corruption, and rendered it, in the end, jrresistible.

So bold an innovation alarmed the jealousy of five distinct orders of inen in the British government. 1. The Royal Family : 2. The House of Peers : 3. The Ancient Landholders: 4. Corporations 5. What may be called a composite order, an order formed out of different claties of men, and comprehending all true friends to our civil conftitution. The Royal Line could not behold with indifference encroachments so itriking in their resemblance to those which made the crown totter and fall from the head of the first Charles. The peers were interested in maintaining that political equipoise on which their own privileges and advantages all depend. For whichever of the other two branches of the conftitution, arises, they are sure proportionally to fall. If the croạn, becomes absolute, they will be enslaved together with the rest of their fellow-citizens. If the executive power be seized by.the Commons, the House of Peers,. as formerly, will perhaps be voted, and certainly confidered as useless.

As the elevation of the Commons would depress the House of Peers, so the sudden riches and splendour of the numerous creatures of administration in India would introduce into Parliament a new and formidable interest; an interest which would neither depen 1 on landed property, nor on that regular industry and commerce whence landed property derives its principal value. Hence it was natural, as was observed in the House of Peers by Lord Gower, that the ancient landholders Tould regard with mortification and concern, a parliamentary interest hitherto unknown to the constitution. The inhabitants, too, of towns and, boroughs, enjoying privileges and immunities ; members of universities; all who poffeffed chartered rights; and even the church herself; was not a little alarmed at that spirit which violated the public faith to the East India Company, burst open the doors of their warehouses, arrested their chips, seized their papers, their money, and their goods. The Eaft India Com. pany themselves, above all others, were alarmed at the denunciation of such arbitrary proceedings. What though a distinction was made in words, between robbery and sequestration. From their own history they were taught that there is sometimes no difference between the administration of estates and the legal possesion of them. It is in the usurped character of adıniniftrators for the princes, of Alid, that they have acquired all their wealth and dominions.

But, besides those peculiar interests which operated against Mr. Fox's East India Bill, there was a general intereit in the nation to


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