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nected with the prosperity of manufactures; yet it does not appear that there is any violent or general alarm among landholders and farmers. The danger ot lofs and disadvantage to these, though as certain to them as to the manufacturers, is more distant and circuitous.
FORTIFICATIONS. In the midst of an affected æconomy, ministry, in order to humour the whim, and give employment to the plodding and restless genius of the Duke of Richmond, have resolved to lay our large, we had almost faid immense fums in fortifications. Forts are to be built on the banks of the lakes of Canada, for the protection of our trade with the Indians. This is to compensate for the easy and impolitic cession of the passes into Canada tožthe North Americans. The Irish nation, at a time when they did not carry their heads fo high as they now do, about half a century ago, built a magazine at Dublin. Dr. Swift, on that occalion, for the lait time, exercised his genius for fatyr.
" Behold a proof of Irish sense!
66 Here Irish fenfe is seen,
“ We build a magazine !" But the works at Plymouth and Portsmouth portend very serious evils to this country. At a moderate computation, they will require garrisons amounting to 40,000 men. Magazines must be erected and stored with 40,000 rations of provisions. This sacrifice is really too coftly a gratification to any peer of France, Scotland, or England.
Secondly, These works are by no means necessary for the defence of Britain, which consists in its navy, militia, and the native spirit of the people.
Thirdly, It is pernicious, .in as much as it tends to divert our force from the poits in which it may be most advantageously exerted, and to weaken the resources of the nation in case of invasion. As the great bulwark of Britain is her navy, and as that is supported by commerce, commerce should be the great object of our care and sedulous attention. If that is protected, new works at Plymouth and Portsmouth will be needless : if it is not, they will not avail. And, of the present administration, future political historians, perhaps, may affert, that it was a poor compensation for their commercial conceifions to Ireland, that they erected new fortifica. tions at our principal dock-yards. In general, the idea of taking shelter within walls and ditches, is new to the British nation, and if fostered, it will naturally diminish, in proportion to its growth, the bold confidence of the English militia, and British seamen.
Again. If our whole confidence be not, as heretofore, placed in the navy, and the spirit of the people, and we fhould begin to think of resisting an enemy within wails and trenches, fuc fortifications will become neceísary all over the island. For there are
many other places where an invading army might land, besides Plymouth and Portsmouth. Britain presents an extended coast, and France can pour
in upon us most numerous armies. If we do not oppose their entrance into the island, they might over-run, and, perhaps, finally subdue it. We have no frontier towns to protect us, no internal fortreiles to protract our fall and to keep our fate in fufpense : opposed like the Grecians to the innumerable armies of Perfia, we must fight the hereditary foes of our native land at the straits of Thermopylæ. The Thermopylæ of England is the British Channel. This the grand buiwark which the hand of nature has formed for our protection!
CONTINENT OF EUROPE. Appearances still lead us to believe, that peace will be foon settled between the Dutch and the Emperor. The Names of war in Europe will, in all probability, first break out on the confines of Turkey and Russia. The Turks, like other conquerors, are more successful, it would seem, in offensive than in defensive war. The fury of enthusiasm, which gives ardour to a sudden attack, subsides under the fatigues of fieges and hostile invasion. The celerity with which, in the seventh and eighth centuries, they extended their power from the Perfian Gulph to the Straits of Gibraltar, was prodigious: but, in their turn, they have been at different times humbled, by the inroads of the Trırtars and Persians; and, about a century ago, their very existence as a nation was threatened with annihilation, by a small state, at present but little heard of in the world. In the year 1687, the Venetians, under the conduct of their captain general Morosini and the count Coningiec, reduced under their authority the city of (Corinth, and, foon after, the whole of the Morea. Hence they pussed into Scio, and alarmed Cyprus, Rhodes, and the rest f the inland s in the Ægean Sea. At last they threatened to break through the Dardanelles, and even to storm the seat of the Ottoman empire. And this they probably would have accomplished, if the Pope had encou raged their ardour by absolving, which was the condition they requi red, certain religious houses from their vows, and annexing them to the republic in favour of the common cause of Christianity. But this condition the pope, Innocent XI. who was a Milanese, and more ai tached to the natural enemy of Venice, the emperor, than to the republic, refused to grant ; and the Venetians, whose martial spirit was tempered, as might be expected in the conduct of noble merchants, with some regard to loss and gain, degíted from their enterprize. In the space of little more than twenty years after these transactions, the courage of the Turks was stimulated by the successes of their ally Lewis XIV. to carry the war into the seat of their enemies, and the Y made themselves masters of the island of Candia. So true it is of the Turks, what Livy, an historian not lefs profound than elegant, affirms of mankind in general, that there is naturally more energy ar d spirit in the affailants than in the defendants. Should the enthufi asm of the Turks be by any incident revived, it might make a successful fally at least upon the overbearing power of the Ruffans.
GOVERNOR HASTINGS. Although no illuminations have exprefied the congratulations of his countrymen; this month is distinguished by the return of Mr. Hastings from India, who uniting the moit profound policy with the utmost vigour and proinptitude of action, and nobiy exceeding his delegated powers, as occation required, in the midit of Au&tuating councils and the civil convulsions of a dismembered empire, preserved to his country, as if in spite of herielf, the nobleit dependency any nation did or can poffeís. A celebrated orator, who in the ardour of emulation, propoled to himself as a subject of imiation the brightest example of Roman eloquence, looked about like the Roman patriot for some peculating pro-consul, on whom he might pour out the bitterett invective, and thought he had found one in Mr. Hastings. The governor general of Bengal returns to confront his precipitate accuser, and with an erect front, seems to reply to all the studied harangues of the orator, you are delirous, Sir, of appearing a Cicero, but you have not found in me a VERRES'
*** The conclusion of our account of Dr. Priestley's Letters to Dr. Horsley is unavoidably postponed to a future number.
+i+ Title, Contents, and Index, to Vol. V, of the English Review will be given in our next.
*** Communications for this Review are defired to be trans mitted to Mr. MURRAY, Bookfeller, No. 32, Fleet-street, London ; where Jubscribers are requested to give in their names,
Winckelman, account of 49 BALFOUR, Dr. his
Treatise on the
149' Battle of Marathon, Description of 94
366 Biographical Dictionary
366 Birth-day Conversation anticipated 389
Bishop of Landaff, his Collection of
420 Boswell's Letter to the people of Scoto
316. Brief Account of a Seminary at Mar-
473 Bruce, Rev. Jean, his first Principles of
105 Bucbannan, George, becomes an enemy
Case of the Rev. Dr. Harwood 148 Rufia, 205; of the Confruction of
74 Roads in ditto, 205; of a Ruflian
Village, 206; of the Castle and
med contrasted, 9; and Office of Parting of the Queen of Denmark
213 Dialogues, between a Juftice and a Far-
148 and Mr. Garrick in the Elysian
454 Digby, Lord, excellent character of
32 ftituting the Afiatic Society at Cala
228 Disney, Dr. his Memoirs of Dr. Sykes,
230 Difentions in Royal Society, narrative
462 the Rev. George Walker, F. R. S.
Du Mitand, Mr, his new French Spel-
196 EDWARD, Bryan, Efq. Address to
277 Elegy to the Memory of Capt. James
471 Emperor's claim for navigating the
230 England's Alarm on the Doctrine of