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16, much exhilarated by the Grant's Observations on the life of Opium. 453 given to patients with safety and efficacy in the cure of many diseases. The use of this inestimable drug hath been much extended by modern pra&itioners; and we are obliged to Mr. Pott, particularly, for having used it in a difeafe for which it had not been before administered; and where the effects of very large doses are astonishingly great. We cannot however think, that the general idea of administering opium in cases supposed to be owing to morbid irritability, is entirely a new one, although that of the particular use of it, in the cases mentioned by Mr. Grant, may be admitted to be so.

There seem indeed to be two inftances in which mercury fails of curing the venereal difease: the one, when it is not fufficiently brought into action, and when it is necessary to rouze it by the administration of some cordial medicine.In this case no medicine can be so proper as' opium ; for it certainly is the most powerful cordial in nature. This is exemplified by its well-known effects upon the Turks, and by its powerful antisceptic qualities so eyident in the cases of mortification in which Mr. Pott has recommended it. The effe&ts of opium in large doses, seem indeed to be exactly similar to those of intoxication.-We remember a gentleman free use of opium, which a painful disorder he laboured under towards the close of his life, obliged him to have recourse to, that he sometimes was thrown entirely out of his ordinary grave deportment; so much as to play the buffoon tefore his family:

In some of Mr. Grant's cases, we presume, that the opium has acted in this manner; in which opinion we are the inore confirmed by observing, that in some of his patients, a salia vation was raised, after the opium had been continued for a few days. This salivation we cannot attribute to the opium itself, but to the cordial effects of it in rouziņg into action the mercury, previously remaining dormant in the fyi

Nor is this uncommon. A very remarkable instance of it has fallen under our observation. It was of a salivation excited by the stimulus of an operation, fix months after the patient had discontinued the use of mercury.

The other case alluded to, in which mercury fails of curing the venereal disease, is, when the system is too much loaded with it. This circumitance is particularly exemplified in the case of venereal ulcers or chancres, which, after having been nearly or perhaps entirely healed by the adminiftration of mercury, Thall suddenly break out a-fresh, w th a degree of foreness which is intolerable to the patient, and which far surpasses the first foreness of the complaint.-


is very well known, that the continuation of mercury in this case, always exasperates the disease, and that we can only obtain a cure by fufpending totally the use of it. The deco&tion of farsaparilla, properly prepared, is of great use in this stage of the disease, and in this case too, Mr. Grant's administration of opium may be used with great propriety, from its well known sedative powers : we are therefore much obliged to him for adding one powerful remedy in such cales, to those before in ufe.

Noris this idea of opium acting in the double capacity of a cordial and a fedative, the least inconsistent. The same thing is observed of the effects of intoxication, which, carried to a great height, always induce not only a great ten, dency to sleep, but also often bring on a most profound temporary lethargy, such as patients experience from large doses of opium.

But this is not the place to enter into a discussion of this curious point, which would lead us much farther than the bounds of a review would allow. We have just suggested ą hint of the matter, which may serve as a kind of illustration of Mr. Grant's practice, and thew that there are many things with respect to the effects of opium, which remain still to be observed and investigated.



Art. XIII. Fragmenta Chirurgica & Medica. Auctore, Gul.

Fordyce, M. D. Eq. Aur. Svo. zs. fut. Spillbury, Chirurgical and Medical Fragments. By Sir William Fordyce,

M. D. THIS work, written in Latin, is dedicated to Sir John

Elliot. Bart. The learned author, in an address the reader, apologizes for publishing the observations he has made, through a long series of practice in this man.

His increase of business, and the infirm ftate of his health, have induced him `rather to iinpart things as they have occurred to him, than to defer this communication til! he could arrange the whole under the form of a regular work.

The performance itself confifts of various cafes in physic and surgery, with general observations on certain diseases and certain remedies.-We shall notice the principal things in this performance, and select one or two of the most ftriking cases, which we shall translate, as a specimen, for the benefit of our medical readers.

The two first cases are accounts of abscesses in the liver ; the former cured by incision; the latter fatal, from the matper penetrating the diaphragm, getting from thence into the lungs, and thus causing a phthifis pulmonalis.


The author' then considers various complaints happening about the anus. Against the intolerable itching accompanied with heat, which frequently occurs, and is a moft obftinate complaint, for which many remedies are often tried in vain, he recommends tin internally administered.

In rhagades from the venereal disease, he thinks sarsapa. rilla fufficient, after the proper use of mercury. Though generally successful, we have known fome obstinate cafes of this sort resist this method; and they have yielded only to particular preparations of mercury. Among these the mercurius emeticus flavus has appeared to us the most effeétual.

In old cachectic fiftulas, which cannot be brought to heal, even after the operation has been properly performed, họ recommends Ward's paste.

For a prolapsus of the anus, arising from relaxation of the muscles, he uses, as a very effectual remedy, the external application of water, in which a red hot poker has been quenched.

We come now to a singular case of a stone in the gall bladder, part of which was discharged by the anus ; the other part, in attempting to pass the valve of the colon, a few days after, excited a sudden pain, which ruptured the intestine, and occafioned instant death.

In that species of erysipelatose inflammation called the shingles, the author very judiciously shews the inefficacy of bleeding and the antiphlogistic regimen; and treats it as a putrid disease, against which a drachm of the powder of bark, taken four or five times a day, in red Port wine, or old hock, is a most effectual remedy,

In colicky complaints, to which the writer himfelf has been much subject, he recommends from repeated experience upon himself, a medicine known by the name of the ftomach pills, as the most certain and powerful of any he has ever tried.

In dyfenteries, after trying in vain emetics, rhubarb, and {mall doses of ypecacoanha, as usually prescribed; the writer found more certain and speedy relief by giving from ten to fifteen grains of ypecacoanha twice a day, in a spoonfull of French brandy.

In intermittents, which do not yield to a continued use of the bark, our author has administered the pulvis comitis Warwicensis, or pulvis cornachinus, either alone, or with the underwritten draught, about an hour before the fit, with repeated success 4

Be Aq.

Ę 4

B Aq. card. benedict, 3ij. theriac. fimpl. zij, fal, abfynth. 3fs, spirit. fal. ammon. Ofs, fyrup. papav. errat, 3iij. m. fiat austus.

In the fluor albus, Sir William recommends the following injection.-B. Calomel. 3i. aq. calc. 3ij. aq. font. Ziv. gum arab. zi. m.

In madness much advantage is said to be derived from largę doses of diuretic falt.

In page 58, we bave an instance of dimness of sight cured by smoaking tobacco.

In the measles the Doctor is of opinion, that while the eruption is going forward, exposure to the open air, far from being useful, as in the small pox, is frequently fatal.

He thinks that rhubarh alone, if we have ręcourse to it in time, is sufficient to cure almost all hectic fevers in children, whether the belly be diftended or not.

Sir William diftinguishes several kinds of rheumatism.The inflammatory he cures by repeated bleeding, with a free use of diluting liquors, and a very rigid antiphlogistic regimen, persevered in for three weeks.

In the bilious rheumatism, the neutral falts, joined with rhubarb, he finds the best remedy,

In the spasmodic rheumatisin, he recommends opiates, with valerian, and the use of blisters ; and observes that, there is a fourth kind of rheumatism, to be cured only by issues.

Our author commends the internal use of faline substances so highly, as to think them the principal medicines to be depended upon, in the cure of almost every disease, whether acute or chronic ; and even says, that no man deseryes the name of a physician, who does not know how to administer them properly. He strengthens this opinion by the authority of Hoffman.' Among these substances, the neutral falts hold the first rank.

After this we find several observations upon bleeding, upon sleep, upon the finall-pox, upon the use of blisters, and upon uncuous applications.

The three laft cafes are of a chirurgical nature. The two first being instances of wounds in the abdomen, successfully treated, we shall translate.

George Oylett, a foldier of the third regiment of foot guards, ' in the year 1748, when the confederate army was encamped at

Nesleroi, in Brabant, was wounded in the belly, with a broad "fword. In half an hour after I found him supporting a large pore 'cion of his intestines- in his hat, to prevent the rest from falling

out. They were very much distended, and the omentum was full of diri. I was obliged to cut it off, before I could return the intestines into the cavity, although the wound was very large. The


man having indulged himself in eating and drinking, very freelye

little before the accident, a most beautiful appearance of the • lacteal veffels dispersed through the mesentery, presented it.lf. • All the parts being replaced, and the blood still flowing freely from

the arteries of the omentum, I performed the interrupted luture, • with a very long needle, which was not done without difficulty,

on account of the spontaneous retraction of the peritoneum, and • the thickness of the abdominal muscles. Fomentations being used ' and the patient being every day wrapped in the skins of sheep, recently killed, was rellored to health.'

A ferjeant of the fame regiment, received in a duel, a wound in the region of the itomach; upon which a copious discharge of • blood came on, both upwards and downwards. The principal

surgeons of the army who saw him, were of opinion, that the * wound had penetrated through the liver into the stomach. Not• withstanding all their fatal prognostics, the man was restored to • health with the affittance of a very strict antiphlogistic regimen.

It has been a long received opinion, that wounds of the stomach were incurable ; that they are not entirely so, this case is an in• stance.'

The last cafe furnishes a proof of the success of the trepan, applied six months after the injury received.

From the sketch we have given of this performance, it may be observed, that its merit consists in being entirely practical. To those who wish to be entertained with very elegant classical Latin, we recommend the perusad of the original.


ART. XIV. Sermons on various Subjects. By the late Rev. Thomas

Francklin, D. D. In two Vols. 8vo. 143. Cadell. London.

1785. THESE fermons are the production of the fame pen to

which the public have been indebted for the elegant translations of Sophocles and Lucian, and for several other approved publications. Though they were probably not intended by him for the press, and confequently fent into the world in a state less finished than the author would have permitted, they will yet be found to do no discredit to his reputation.

The subjects he has chosen are all of a practical nature, ard treated in such a manner as is calculated not only to convince, but to persuade. The great fault of our discourses in general is, that they speak to the understanding rather than the heart. The author of these sermons has chosen a happy mdium-between the dry coldness of metaphysical demonftration, and the declamatory tinsel of Gallic eloquence.


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