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Aims.] Argent a fess, Gules, between 2 bars gemelles wavy, Azure.

Creft.] On a wreath an Elephant's head coupt Argent, collard Gules.

Supporters.] Two Eagles reguardant, with wings expanded,, proper, and charged on their breasts with an ermine spot. . Motto.] Occurrent Nubes.

Chief Sear.] Port Eliot in-Cornwall. The copper-plates which illustrate this work, are not.in. ferior to those of the last edition of Collins. As to literary perfection, Mr. Longmate and his master do not vary widely. Their diction is harih, dry, and unornamented; and they are perfect strangers even to the idea of speculation. Their care is bounded by mere matters of fact ; and here their only value must be rested. Their labour, however, facilitates the Nudy, and may aid the invention of abler writers; and their collections cast a light upon the diplomatic science of England.

IT

Art. IX. Obfervations on the late Contests in the Rnyal Society. By

Andrew Kippis, D. D. F. R. S. and S. A. 8vo. 2s. 68. Ro binson. T is a matter of regret that the objects of science and li.

terature cannot always be pursued with cordiality and candour. · Vanity, disappointment, faction, and spleen too frequently disturb the 1peculations of the learned, and expose them to the ridicule of the vulgar. The dignity of knowledge is thus degraded ; and its march and progress are disagreeably interrupted. The din and animosity which pervade the two houses of parliament, begin to be introduced into the Royal Society; and policy, science, and literature are alike disfigured by the hoftilities of war.

The philosophical caution which, during a long period, had characterised the transactions of the Royal Society, being in a strong opposition to its present contests, they have become the subject of a public curiosity; and our author being con, scious of a desire to restore to it its ancient

peace

and harmo. ny, was induced to put together the observations now before us, His professions of candour are warm ; and as he las given his name to his observations, they are the more words of respect and attention.

He states first, without any comment, the facts that hare occafioned the diffentions which now prevail in the Royal Society; and to these he then applies chiefly in their order, the çensure or praise which he conceived to be due to each. This method is doubless very fair ; but we must acknowledge that we do not always concur in his conclufions.

It appears that the President and Council of the Royal Society were dissatisfied with the conduct of Dr. Hutton, in the business of the foreign correspondence; and that they engaged in measures which obliged him to resign his station. His friends took the aların ; but though they were able to procure the public thanks of the fociety for his fervices, they could not reinitate him in his office. And the Society discovered. a determination to support Sir Joseph Banks in the chair.

In general it is obvious that the conduct of Dr. Hutton was ftri&tly commendable ; and, indeed, a vote of the Society justifies hin completely. Complaints however had been made against him by foreigners who had sent presents to the Society, and who were not sufficiently complimented in his letters to them. His letters, notwithstanding, were according to a prescribed form; and where such a ceremonial is stipulated, it was his duty to be pointedly'exact in following it. The form was cautious and general ; and, without doubt, it was founded in the care which the Society thought to be indispensibly neceffary for supporting their own dignity; by avoiding to exhibit their lan&tion indiscriminately to the theories and discoveries which might be transmitted to theni.

It itrikes us forcibly that Sir Joseph Banks was animated by an improper heat against Dr. Hutton; and that the nishment of the latter is not to be vindicated by any criminality in his behaviour. At the same time we will confess that Dr. Hutton was wrong in resigning to the Society at large, instead of the President and Council

, in whom the appointment of the foreign secretary is vetted. From the previous want, too, of reciprocal and polite attentions between Sir Joseph Banks and Dr. Hutton, it is pretty obvious that the passions of both were rather too keenly engaged. But as the former was the first to promote the degradation of the latter, the hostility of Dr. Hutton will be the more readily excufed. In all societies whatsoever, we are afraid, that the pride of personal consequence is too much indulged; and that individuals, in the cagerness of contention, too easily overleap the purity of virtue, and the exercise of a rigid probity.

In the course of the dispute concerning Dr. Hutton, the behaviour of Dr. Horsley was remarkable; and our author touches upon it in strong language. We pretend not to vindicate the rude impetuosity of Dr. Horsley. It was blameable in a high degree; but we cannot with-hold ourselves from observing that Dr. Kippis wanders too widely from the general tenor and scope of his treatise, when he enters

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upon the character of this gentleman as a theologian. This was a matter out of the question ; and when contrafted with the high character given of Sir Joseph Banks, a suspicion arises that Dr. Kippis is not altogether impartial in his observations. That his intentions were moft honourable we sincerely believe ; but what man is there who can constantly, preserve a guard upon his attachinents and his prepossesfions !

It will be allowed that the papers before us are written with ability, and abound with information, good fense, and a zeal for the extention of knowledge. The sentiments which conclude them have in a particular manner our affent and approbation.

Every man must be sensible of the ardent, the enquiring, the penetrating spirit of the times. The world is in agitation with respect to philosophical discoveries. The zeal with which they are pursued has already been productive of great effects, and will be productive of still greater effects in future. Britons in general, and the Royal Society in particular, will, I trust, never cease to be animated with the same zeal.. The members of that learned body will not spend their time, and lose their renown, in unprofitable des bates. The prefent contests, will subside, and the only ambition will be who shall most contribute to extend the bounds of science, to increase the powers of man over nature, and to promote the real honour of his country. This is the glory of the true Englifhman, this is the glory of the genuine philofopher; and it is a glory infinitely fuperior to the completest victory in any personal difpute. In a career fo illustrious, the writer of the present tract can be no competitor : but he shall deem himself happy, if, in attempting to compose differences, he shall chance to be of any use to the Society which has done him the honour of enrolling him among its meinbers. The consciousnets of this attempt will be the sole reward of his undertaking.'

It only remains for us to wish with Dr. Kippis, and the public in general, that the members of the Royal Society may bury for ever their animosities, and combine with united vigour in the prosecution of those liberal pursuits which have brought them together. If the propagators of science and literature would only act as one family, philosophy would soon uncover her treasures, and, by the advancement of the truth extend and secure the political and religious happiness of mankind.

ART.

ton, &c.

Art. X. A nemu and general Biographical Dictionary; containing an

Historical and Critical Account of the Lives and Writings of the most eminent Persons in every Nation, particularly the British and Irish, from the earliest Accounts of Time, to the present Period. Wherein their remarkable Actions and Sufferings, their Virtues, Parts, and Learning are accurately displayed. With a Catalogue of their literary Productions. A new Edition, in Twelve Volumes,

greatly enlarged and improved. 8vo, 41. 45. Strahan, RivingTHI HE object of this publication is vaft and extensive, as

it includes the history of eminent persons in every age and nation. But as such an undertaking is evidently boundless, it is not to be expected that it should be perfect. To approach to perfection, in enterprizes of this kind, is to attain a high merit; and, it must be confessed that the volumes before us comprehend an immense variety of articles.

Many works of a similar tendency have been presented to the public; and the authors of the volumes before us, have not failed to avail themselves of the collections and materials of their predecessors. They have borrowed very freely from the Historical and Critical Dictionary of Mr. Bayle; from the General Dictionary; from the Biographia Britannica ; from the Athena Oxonienses; and from Mr. Collier's Hifa torical Dictionary.

They have endeavoured to furnish judicious narratives of • the actions and writings, the honours and disgraces of all • those whose virtues, parts, learning, or even vices, have

preserved them from oblivion in any records of whatever

age, and in whatever language. * Accordingly it will be found that they have gathered together accounts and memoirs of the most interesting transactions concerning religion.and government; concerning the progress of taste and learning; and concerning the principles and opinions by which the world has been influenced in all its extent and duration.

In every portion of this work we obviously perceive the exercite of diligence and impartiality; and it is observable that the authors have been more particularly careful to do the compleatest justice to the learned and ingenious of Great Britain and Ireland. They every where blend entertainment with instruction. The articles they exhibit are short, and yet comprehensive. They were attentive not to fatigue the attention by an endless prolixity, or by idle speculations.

But while they consulted and abridged the matter which is detailed in former Dictionaries, it is evident that they have

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searched with curiosity for every publication that could alift, their views, and promote the execution of their design. We therefore bestow upon them, with pleasure, our approbation ; and with regard to the present edition, it is fit that we remark that it contains more than fix hundred lives, that did not appear in the former. For this advantage, if we are rightly informed, the public is chiefly indebted to the indefatigable industry of Mr. Nichols, who is fo generally known not only as a learned printer, but as a curious searcher into history and antiquities.

As a specimen of the style of this work, we lball extract a part of the life that is given of Abbé Winkelman.

In one of his letters, dated 1754, he gives an account of his change of religion, which too plainly appears to have been guided by motives of interest, to make his way to Rome, and gain a better livelihood. At Dresden he published, 1755, • Reflections on the Imitation of the Works of the Greeks,” 4to, translated into French the same year, and republished 1756, 4to. At Rome he made an acquaintance with Mengs, firit painter to the King of Poland, afterwards in 1761 appointed first painter to the House of Spain, with an appointment of 80,000 crowns, a house, and a coach; and he foon got access to the library of Cardinal Paffionei, who is reprefented as a most catholic and respectable character, who only wanted ambition to be popc. His catalogue was making by an Italian, and the work was intended for Winkelman. Giacomelli, canon of St. Peter, &c. had published two tragedies of Æschylus and Sophoeles, with an Italian translation and notes, and was about a new edi. tion of " Chryfoftom de Sacerdotio ;” and Winkelman had joined with him in an edition of an unprinted Greek Oration of Libanius, from two MSS. in the Vatican and Barberini libraries. In 1757, he laments the calamities of his native country, Saxony, which was then involved in the war between the Emperor and the King of Prussia. In 1758 he meditated a journey over the kingdom of Naples, which he says could only be done on foot, and in the habit of a pilgrim, on account of the many difficulties and dangers, and the total want of horses and carriages from Viterbo to Pisciata the ancient Vplia. In the year 1568, we find him inraptured with the idea of a voyage to Sicily, where he wished to make drawings of the inany beautiful, earthen vales collected by the Benedictines at Catana. At the end of the firit volume of his letters, 1791, are now first published his remarks on the ancient architecture of the temple of Girgenti. He was going to Naples, with 100 crowns, part of a pension from the King of Poland, for his travelling charges, and thence to Florence, at the invitation of Barou Stoich. Cardinal Archinto, secretary of state, employed him to take care of his library. His “ Remarks on ancient Architecture” were ready for a second edition. He was preparing a work in Italian, to clear up fome obfcure points in mythology and antiquities, with above so plates ; another in Latin, explanatory of the Greek medals that are least known; and he intended to send to be printed in England, " An Ellay on the Style of Sculpture before Phidias." A work ira

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