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Mosheim himself, who began this accusation of Origen, produces no authority, in his Differtations, for his affertion. He only says that he cannot reconcile the fact that Origen mentions, with his seeming unwillingness to allow the Ebionites to be Christians. But this is easily accounted for, from the attachınent which he himself had to the doctrine of the divinity of Christ
, which they denied ; and from their holding no communion with other Christians.
6 All the appearance of authority that I can find in any ancient writer, of the Jewish Christians deserting the law of their ancestors, is in Sulpicius Severus, to whom I am referred by Mosheim in his history.
But where, Sir, in this historian, do you find, any promise of immunities to the Jewish Christians, if they would forsake the law of their fathers ? On the contrary, the historian fays, that the object of Adrian was to overturn Christianity, and that the Jews were banithed because the Christians then were chiefly of that nation. According to this account, all the Jews, Christians as well as others, were driven out of Jerusalem ; and nothing is said of any of them forsaking the law of Moses ; and your affertion of their having been gradually prepared for it, by having before this time observed their law more from habit than from conscience, is unsupported by any authority or probability. Eufebius mentions the expulfion of the Jews from Jerusalem, but says not a word of any of the Christians there abandoning circumcision, and their other ceremonies on that occafion. Indeed, such a thing was in the highest degree improbable.'
• Thus ends this church of orthodox Jewish Christians at Jerufalem, planted by Mosheim, and pretty well watered by the Archdeacon of St. Albans ; from which you have derived such great advantage to your argument.'
I cannot help, in this place, taking some farther notice of what you say with reipect to the charge of a wilful falfhood on Origen. “ Time was," you say, " when the practice" (viz. of uling unjustifiable means to serve a good end) “was openly avowed, " and Origen himself was among its defenders." This, Sir, as is usual with you, is much too itrongly itated, and as you mention no authorities, you might think to escape detection. I believe, indeed, you went no farther than Mosheim for it. Jerom, in his epistle to Pammachius, Opera, vol. I. p. 496. fays, that Origen adopted the Platonic doctrine (and you, Sir, are an admirer of Plato) of the subferviency of truth to utility, as with respect to deceiving enemies, &c. as Mr. Hume and other speculative moralists have done; considering the foundation of all social virtue to be the public good. But, Sir, it by no means follows from this, that fuch persons will ever indulge themselves in any greater violations of truth than those who hold other speculative opinions concerning the foundation of morals.
Jerom was far from saying as you do, that " he reduced his theory to practice.” He mentions no instance whatever of his having recourse to it, and is far, indeed, from vindicating you in asserting, that “ the art which he recommended he scrupled not “ to employ ; and that, toj silence an adversary, he had recourse
to the wilful and deliberate allegation of a notorious falfhood." Here, Sir, is much more in the conclusion than the premises will warrant. Many persons hold fpeculative principles, which their adverfaries think muit neceffariiy lead to inimorality ; but those who hold them should be heard on the subject; and the conclusion will notbe juít, unless they themselves connect immoral practices with their principles. I find, Sir, that the characters of the dead are no fafer in your hands than those of the living. I am unwilling to say a harsh thing, and I wish to avoid it the more, lest I should be thought to return railing for railing; but really, unless you can make a better apology for yourself, than I am able to fuggeft, you will be considered by impartial persons, as a falfifier of history, and a defamer of the character of the dead, in order to serve your purpose.'
(To be concluded in our next.)
FOREIGN LITERATUR E. Art XV. Guftavi Orræi, M. D. Defiriptio Peftis, &c. A De
fcription of the Plague which raged at Jasle in 1770, and in Miofcow in 1781. By Dr. Orræus. 4to. Petersburgh, 1784.
[Concluded.] N TEXT follow the confeitaria, or theory, which will at
least not be unpleasing to the lovers of novelty. 1. Many phænomena and íymptoms, considered and compared, seem to shew that the plague is scarce to be regarded as an highly putrid disease ; and that th: effects, which the peftilential miasma produces, are not to be deduced from an alcaline acrimony.
The author seems successful in establishing both these propofitions. “If,” says he, “ the miasma were of a putrid nature, it ought to produce correspondent effects, and Thew evident marks of the presence of putrefaction, which was neither observed with respect to the dead nor the living. For neither the breath, perspiration, ulcers, or excrements, of the infected, had any singular fætor or putridity; on the contrary, the sweat had an acid odour. It is certain, that one or two persons confined with scorbutic ulcers, or gangrene in the hospital, tainted the air much worse than fifteen or twenty infected, who were in the same ward. The substance of buboes and carbuncles had no putridity, after having been cut out.-Wounds and ulcers dry up on the first attack, and lose all their fotor.-The decline of the plague in the heighth of summer-the sudden convalescence of the fick - the benefit derived from bodily exercise-the numbers who retained the perfect use of their reason and senses almost to the last gafp-are the chief of the remaining arguments deduced from the symptoms, and urged against thc purrid nature of the miafma.
The dead bodies furnish him with others : In the 20th observation it is already mentioned, that they did by no means rapidly run into putrefaction; and he now further observes, that at Moscow, in the beginning of the plague, many corpses not being buried deep, nor covered with much mould, they were laid bare by the rain. In consequence of which they were covered again at the public expence; and it was remarked with some surprize, how slowly they putrified. After the cessation of the plague, upon examining the infected and suspected houses, about one thousand bodies were found secretly buried in the courts, gardens, and under the very floors; many of them had probably lain fince the first onset, during a pretty hot summer and autumn; and notwith: Itanding, they were either entire, or not totally corrupted.
2: Although therefore it be impossible exactly to ascertain to 'what class of acrimony the miasma should be referred, ỳet it would seem to come nearer the rancid than any other . with which we are acquainted; ás appears from the acid na. ture of fat; wliether freshi or not, the evident signs of rancidity in the plague, &c.
3. Fat therefore and the oily fluids are the true, and probably the only fomitès of the true peftilent miasma ; and its seat seems to be in the skin and subjacen adipose membrane. For if it be by any means repelled towards the deep-seated cellular texture, or be at first lodged there, nature always uses the utmost efforts to expel it to the superficial cellular texture.
4. The combination of the peftilential miasına with the fatty and oily substances, occasions an inanimation or total cessation of their circulation; of which a deliquescence is the consequence; and they afterwards become acrid, and emit very subtle vapours.
5. The miasma attacks, 1. the fat of the skin ; 2. that of the mediaftinum; 3. of the omentum ; and 4. of the remaining adipose membrane.
We must do the author the justice to observe, that he says infinitely more in support of this doctrine, than we could ever have expected before hand; but as the reader will easily suppose, he has by no means brought conviction upon our minds.
6. The unequal effects of the misama must be attributed to a variation in its power at different times, the diversity of conftitution, &c.
7. It is probable, that the miasma does not adhere only to infected matters, but that it is diffused in a more or less diluted state through the atmosphere, въ
8. The petechial fevers at the commencement, various morbid affe&tions during the prevalence, and the malignant fevers after the cessation of the plague, though they differ from it in fome respects, féem a-kin to it, and to derive their origin from the miasma, much diluted, and rendered in some measure inert.
9. But the phænomena occurring during the period of infection, are to be deduced from the efficacy of the miasma, and manifeftly indicate its deposition on the fkin or subjacent fat, together with the exhaling unguent, a disordered state of the perfpiratiori, a cession of the action of the stomach and intestines, a lentor of the fluids, and a gradual relaxation of the whole cellular tissue.
10. To remove this obstruction of the perspirable matter, while it is yet mobile, it is requisite to propel the Huids moderately to the surface, and to restore the strength of the stomach.
11. The symptoms attending the flow type, point out a derivation of the perspirable matter, tainted with the miasma towards the deep-seated cellular texture, an infraction of its "and lastly, a colliquation of the fluids.
12. Therefore remedies preventing this. derivation, attenuates, and tonics are indicated.
13. The acute differs from the flow type, as the burning fever differs from the petechial. The violence of fymptoms and shortness of period, indicate greater virulence in the miasma, and more copious accumulations of the peccant matter, which is now also more mobile in the cellular tissue, especially the deep-seated.
14. At the onset of the acute type, the tone of the cellular tissue, and the mobility of the peccant matter, render a perfect evacuation by sweat, resolution of buboes, and running of a purulent matter from the penis, possible. But at a more advanced period, when it has struck a deeper root into the adipofe membranc, vomits, attenuants, tonics, together with external applications, will be necessary to bring about the suppuration of the carbuncles and baboes.
15. The irregular and violent symptoms of the very acute type, few a sudden relaxation of the internal cellular tissue, and a tumultuary derivation of humour's towards the nobler viscera.
16. Remedies therefore capable of freeing the stomach from its load, restoring its tone, and throwing out the peccant matter towards the external cellular tissue, are proper
17. The fuppuration of buboes and carbuncles, feems to produce its happy effects by separating the dead and indurated parts, from the living, and those only obitructed, by
bccasioning a collection of the peftilential matter, its transformation into pus, and evacuation ; and hence by restoring the vitál powers of the whole cellular texture.
18. The noxious effects of blood-letting and purging, are to be ascribed to the derivation of the peftilential matter, from the external to the internal cellular substance.
19. The choice of diet is of great importance in preventing and curing the plague: the rule is, to avoid fubftances capable of exciting fermentation and acidity in the primæ viæ, and to employ nutritive and easily digestible substances, complete acids, and corroborants.
20. The diftemper of horned cattle having a strong resemblance with the plague, faline and aftringent remedies seem equally proper in it.
MISC E L L À Ñ EO U S.
Art. 16. Pictures from Natures. In 12 Sonnets. To which
is added, the Lock transformed. London, C. Dilly. 4to. Is. 6d.
1785. A FEW obfervations on sonnet-writing, precede these poems
; in which the author obferves, that the minute delineation of objects seems to be the province of that species of poetry. He remarks too, that it is more peculiarly adapted to the beautiful, by displaying the various pleafing characteristics of a fingle object.With regard to the productions now before the public, he adds,
that every leading image or sentiment were derived from real inci
dent or actual observation. The following fonnet may be given as no unfavourable specimen of the work:
• Tho' now pale Eve with many a crimson streak,
• Soft-fading tips the lime-invested hill ;
And seems to breathe a cherub-like repose !
* Stealing in ftillness the calm mind ascends and · The unruffled line, tho' loft amid the shroud
· Of Heaven, in fancy rising never ends!
Thus ever may my tranquil spirit rise