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more than individuals, have ever been infallible in their judgments, or have consulted their own interests in the course of their proceedings. England alone can furnith examples without number of this melancholy truth. This being premised, we have two points now to consider, viz. ist, Whether it can be for the benefit of the public in general (abstracted from any particular confideration), that the landed and trading interests should be circumcribed, or limited by a monopoly in the freight, carriage, or transport of their own goods and merchandize ? and then, 2dly, Whether the excuses usually brought for making this facrifice, namely, that it increases the breed of feamen, hath a just foundation in fact, or can be warranted by experience. The discussion of which two questions will, it is apprehended, contain the whole substance of what can be said on this subject; I mean, as far as reafon and argument are to have any Ihare therein. Now, respecting the first inquiry, if any doubt can be started on this head, it muit be this, that mankind in general have not the same senle to judge of what is, or is not for their own immediare advantage in this case, as they have in all others; and sherefore ought to be subject to the restraints of tutors and guardians, to preferibe terms for the regulation of their conduct. But as this is a propofition too glaringly false, and too absurd to be serioufly maintained, recourte mult therefore be had to the second point, numely, That the great body of the people must be abridged of their natural rights and liberties of employing whomloever they please, for the sake of keeping up, and increasing the number of failors to man our navy. Now, this is the first instance which occurs in history, of monopolies and restraints being judged to be a proper mode of multiplying the numbers of persons employed in the conduct and execution of them. The usual train of reasoning hath been quite the reverse : however, to give the matter hearing, let us try the effects of the present monopoly, in a case of which every man is a competent judge, and which is exactly parallel to this before us.

• A merchant-thip is nothing more than a sea-waggon for the exportation and importation of its lading; the use of which is correfpondent to the carriage or re-carriage of goods by land.waggons. . Or, to come still closer to the point, it antwers the idea of the freight, both forwards and backwards, of wares and merchandise sent along our navigable rivers, and inland canals. Now, can any man be so loft to common sense, as to maintain, that were exclusive patents to be granted either to our waggons by land, or to our barges and trows by water, this would be a means of inultiplying the number of those who should be employed on either element And yet this he must maintain, and prove likewise, before he can justify the act of navigation, as a proper measure for increasing the breed of sailors. The only rational and effectual method of increafing the numbers to be employed either by land or water, is to increase the quantity of produce, of raw materials, and of all kinds of bulky manufactures, which require to be conveyed from place to place. For there will of course create a demand for more waggons, more trows, barges. and vessels for the carriage or transportation of them, than otherwife would have been neceflary. Whereas, to begin with schemes to increase the number of

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or quantity of shipping,


without having a prior regard, or without giving due encouragemene to increase the quantity of goods to be carried, is surely to begin aç the wrong end; and, as the old proverb expreffes it, to put the cart before the horse. In fact, every thing in trade ought to be left to find its own level; and no monopoly, or exclusive privilege, ought to be granted to one set of traders in preference to another When the sea-carrier finds that he is encouraged, and, as it were, exhorted by means of an exclusive privilege, to raise his price of freight, as having no rivals to contend with, can it be supposed that he will not avail himself of this circumstance? Or, is there an ins Itance to be produced of any number of men, when knit together, and united by a legal monopoly, who sacrificed their own interest to that of the Public? Whereas emulation between rival carriers, rival merchants

, and rival manufacturers of every fort and kind, operates by a ratio just the reverse. The price of freight, of goods, merchandize, labour, wages, and provisions, is then reduced to its just standard. And every individual, by striving to ourdo his neighþour, and to get the most custom, serves the Public by his endea. yours to serve himself. This has ever been the fact, and ever will be, according to the reason and nature of things. Now, as far as the increase of shipping, and consequently of sailors, is concerned, one example, and a striking one it is, may serve instead of a thousand. Since the peace has been concluded with America, our trade between Great Britain and the American continent hath greatly increased. And what hath been the consequence? More English shipping, and larger ships (I fay English, not American), have been employed in that service than ever were employed during the same space of time before. Now, 'this I aver has been the fact, notwithstanding the act of navigation itself has been fuperfeded in favour of these revolted colonies; and every indulgence hath been Mhewn to them, which hath been hitherto denied to other na. tions, though they most certainly have a better claim,

• However, an opening is now made ; and in the present en lightened state of things, such an affair as this cannot recede, but must go forward. Other nations will think themselves extremely ill-used (and with great justice) unless they, our friends and beit customers, shall be put on an equal footing with the Americans, so lately our bitterest enemies, and at present far, very far from being our most punctual paymasters, or best customers.

But above all, the independance of Ireland will necessarily give a coup de grace to this injurious monopoly, as well as to several others. The Irish are not bound by our act of navigation, or by any other of our restraining laws. They are therefore at full liberty to employ what shipping they may find the most conducive to their own interest; and the English adventurers, who will have the chief share in the fitting out such fhips and cargoes, will rejoice to find, that they enjoy that liberty in the ports of Ireland, which is denied to them in their own. At last, indeed, the English legislature itself will grow wiser by experience, and learn, from the example before their eyes, that trade ought not to be circumscribed, and that the best and sureit means of encouraging the breed of sailors, is to encourage the cheapness of freight, and to promote rivalship and emulation among all ranks and classes in society, especially among the commer: cial,

With respect to composition, Dr. Tucker does not deserve any high degree of commendation. Instead of being forcible he is too often vulgar and coarse; and, of his own importance, he is impressed with a sensibility fo full, that he sometimes displeases even while he instructs.

ART. XIII. A Discour fe delivered to the Students, of the Royal

Academy on the Distribution of the Prizes, December 10, 1784.
By the President. 4to. 45. T. Cadell. London. *1785.
METHOD of Study” is the subject of the present

discourse. The worthy President for various reasons which he assigns, declares against holding out to the young painter any fixed or invariable rule of study.“ A paffion for his art," he says, “ and an eager desire to excel, 'will more than supply the place of method.'

The firit talent he wishes the student to cultivate is induftry; and at the same time warns him, after he has acquired a facility of invention and design, against fitting down contented with first thoughts. He says, and with the greatest justice, that the pittore improvifitore, though, like the extempore poet, he may sometimes hit upon lucky thoughts, yet will never produce a work that can stand the test of found criticism. He therefore wishes the young painter to correct the sketches of his fancy by a comparison with nature, and by all the atlistance that the works of others can afford, To reconcile him to this laborious perseverance, Sir Joshua places before him the opposite conduct of Raffaelle, Luca Giordano, Le Fage, and Bouche. The first scrupled not to apply to his own purposes whatsoever he found worthy of attention in the ancient bas reliefs, in the works of Michael Angelo, Massaccio, and others. Luca Giordano and Le Fage, poffeffing much facility of execution, and a rapid invention, and resting satisfied with their first conceptions excelled in the number, but by no means in the merit of their performances. While Bouche, though he poffeffed many requisites of a good paintex, hy painting solely from his own ideas, totally loft fight of nature and of truth.

Lest the student should be led, from a misconception of the precept, to lean too servilely upon former matters, the President expresses himself in the following guarded and ele: gant manner.

• I should hope, from what has been lately said, that it is nat necessary to guard myself against any fuppofition of recommending an entire dependance upon former masters. I do not defire that you mhould

get other people to do your business, or to think for you: I only wish you to consult with, to call in, as counsellors, men the molt distinguished for their knowledge and experience, the result of which council muit ultimately depend upon yourself; such conduct


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in the commerce of life has never been considered as disgraceful, of in any respect to imply intellectual imbecility ; it is a sign rather of that true wisdom, which feels individual imperfection; and is con: scious to itself how much collective observation is necessary to fill the immense extent, and to comprehend the infinite variety of nature. I recommend neither self-dependance nor plagiarism. I ad. vise you only to take that assistance which every human being wantę, and which, as appears from the examples that have been given, that the greateit painters have not disdained to accept.”

There is one thing mentioned by Sir Joshua which, if properly executed, would be of infinite consequence in the itudy of the art. We shall give it in the words of the author,

• If I was to recommend method in any part of the study of a painter, it would be in regard to invention, that young students should not presume to think themselves qualified to invent, till they were acquainted with those stores of invention the world already poffefs, and had by that means accumulated fufficient inaterials for the mind to work with. It would certainly be no improper method of forming the mind of a young artist, to begin with such exercises as the Italians call a Pasticcio, a composition of the different excellencies which are dispersed in all other works of the same kind."

We shall not anticipate the pleasure of our readers by en, tering more minutely into the merits of this performance, The Royal Academy is happy in the possession of a President who unites so much taste and judgment with his professional knowledge. We cannot however perfectly agree with our author in all that he has said. We are ready to allow that chance and circumstances will in a great measure direct the student in painting as well as in eyery other art and science; but it does not follow from this that no certain rule is to be laid down. On the contrary, it appears to us that, as far as it can be done, the young artist

ihould be provided with rules for his conduct in every possible contingency. Because character and circumstances influence education, must we therefore have no plan of education at all? If we understand our author, he appears to support another opinion, to which, though influenced by the weight of his authority, we cannot possibly subscribe. He seems to infinuate that induftry, well-directed, will invariably lead to excellence in painting. It follows from this, that genius is of no use, or rather that there is no such thing existing. We cannot consent to the annihilation of genius; and, were this the place, apprehend it might be proved both abstractly, and from ex ample, that something more is requisite besides a well-directed industry to arrive at excellence in the art.

This discourse is, like all the former ones, well-written. Industry and eagerness of pursuit has for fook them,” and one or two inaccuracies of the fame kind can be attributed only to inadvertency.


ART. XIV. Letters to Dr. Horley, Part 2. containing farther Evi

dence that the primitive Christian Church was Unitarian. By Joseph Pricitley, L. L. D. F.R.S. 8vo. 3 s. 6 d. Johnfon.

1784. As we closed the last article, in which we undertook to

detail, with as much accuracy as we were able to employ, the merits of this celebrated controversy, with some animadversions upon the treatment our author had received from his antagonifts,' we will introduce the present with a few specimens of the manner in which thefe attacks are repelled in the present publication. Regardless of the obnoxiousnets and unpopularity of Dr. Priestly's opinions, we have already ventured to avow our persuasion of his personal integrity, And perhaps there are few exhibitions more interesting, than that of the language of a mild and ingenuous character, who has been exposed to unmerited censures.

You will perhaps be ftruck with the change in the style of my address to you, when you observe me beginning with Rev. Sir, instead of the Dear Sir of my former letters, an appellation to which our personal acquaintance gave a propriety, and which you have returned; but when I consider how ill it corre ponds to the spirit of your letters, and the stress you lay on your Archidiaconal dignity, which appears not only in the title-page of your work, but at the head of many of your letters, and which yon intimate, that I had not sufficiently attended to, I thought the lty le of Rev. Sir, and occasionally that of Mr. Archdeacon both more proper, and allo more pleasing to yourself, and therefore I have adopted it. And if, by any accident, I should wound your feelings, you will find the proper balın in my running titli.

"Wiile persons who have some personal acquaintance treat each other with decent repect, and are uniform in doing it, as I have been to you, the usual style of Dear Sir is natural, and proper; but when you charge me with numerous instances of the grofseit artifice, and imposition on the public, you in fact give me the lie; and therefore ought yourself to have dropped all terms exprefsive of affection and regard. I renounce all particular respect for the man who has treated me in this manner; and in the outset of this second part of our correspondence, I fubferibe myself, merely because custom authories the forin.

Rev. Sir,
• Your


humble servant.'. . You are pleased, indeed, to balance the account of my wilful misrepresentations, &c. with an allowance for the general probity of my character, and a cordial eftrem and affection for the virtues of it, which, you say, are great and amiable. What you know of my private character I cannot tell; but I suppose not much ; and I shall not attempt to balance your account in the fame manner; for really of your private character, I know but little, either good or evil ; and therefore I presume the former, though the liberties you have taken as a writer are not very favourable to that presumption. But this kind of apology is abfurd'; and had I thought you, or Mr.


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