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less absolute at Stockholm, than the French monarch at Versailles, and the Grand Signor at Constantinople," he thews, by a review of the present constitution, that his Swedith Majeliy, though now possessed of very great prerogatives, is yet in many important inítances, a limited monarch.
Here we muft observe, that Mr. Coxe, although he proves that the King of Sweden is not a mere despot, does not, however, altogether invalidate the position of Mr. Sheridan. ". The two great features,” says he, “which essentially distinguish an arbitrary from a limited monarch, are the uncontrouled right of enacting and repealing laws, and the impofition of taxes, without the consent of the subject ; neither of which are exercised by the King of Sweden.' We may venture to affirm, that neither would the Grand Signor hazard bis authority, by repealing laws,or an by arbitrary imposition of taxes.
The fame of the celebrated Linnæus will naturaliy intereft many of Mr. Caxe's readers in the biographical niemoirs which he has collected of that celebrated naturalist.- Of these the following, which describe the early bent of his mind, and the circumstances that urged him forward in his favourité pursuit, are a specimen :
“ Carl Von Linné, or, as he is more known to foreigners, Linnæus, the eldest son of Nils Linnæus, a Swedish divine, was horn on the 24th of May, 1709, at Räshult, in the province of Smoland. His inclination for the studies, in which he afterwards made so wonderful a progress, commenced at a very early period of his life, and took its rise from the following circumstance :-His father used to amuse hinself in the garden of his parfonage, with the cultivation of plants and flowers. Linnæus, while an infant, was foon led to take a Mhare in this entertainment; and, before he was 1carcely able to walk, expreffed extreme satisfaction when he was permitted to accompany him into the garden. As his strength increased, he delighted in digging and planting ; and afterwards obtained for his own use a small portion of ground, which was called Charles's garden. He foon learned to diftinguish the different flowers; and, before he had attained the tenth year of his age, made (mail excursions into the neighbourhood of Rafhult, and brought many indigenous plants into his little garden,
Being sent in 1717 to school at Wexio, under the tuition of Lanarius, by whom he was indulged with the permission of contimuing his excursions, he passed his whole time in collecting plants, Talking of them, and making himself acquainted with their names and qualities. He was so absorbed in this favourite pursuit, as totally to dificgard his other studies; and made such an inconfideravie progress, that upon his removal, in 2724; to the gymnafium in the same town, his new inafter repeatedl, complained of his idle. ness. Urged by these remonstrances, his father conceived his son to, have no tale for literature, and proposed to bind him apprentice to a fhoe-inaker; and this defiination would have caken place, if a
neighbouring physician, whose name was Rothman, struck with the boy's great genius, had not predicted, that he would, in time, become deeply skilled in a science, to which he seemed naturally inclined. This fagacious observer; having prevailed upon the father of Linnæus to continue his son's education, took the boy into his house; supplied him with botanical books, and instructed him in the firit rudiments of phyfic, in which he foon made a considerable progress. When his father had assented to this advice, he had de figned him for the church; and was not, without great difficulty, induced to agree that he should apply hiniself to the Itudy of botany and phyfic.
“In 1717 he was sent to the university of Lund; where he acquired, under the celebrated Stobæus, the first fyftematic principles of natural history. Being lodged in that profeffor's houle; he eajoyed many opportunities of improvement; and particularly from a curious collection of follils, shells, birds, and plants. At this place he began to form an herbarium, colle&ting plants from all quarters, making repeated observations upon them, and comparing them with the descriptions of Tournefort, whofe works he had received as a present froin Dr. Rothman.
During his residence at Lund, he prosecuted his studies with such unremitted attention, that he frequently continued them dura ing great part of the night, in order to enjoy the use of several books, which he secretly obtained froin the profeffor's library.Once in particular, Stobaeus suspecting that he had company at a very late hour, stole unobserved into his apartment, and was astonished at finding him employed in consulting the works of those great botanists, Cæfalpinus, Bauhin, and Tournefort. Pleased with this instance of his indefatigable zeal for science, the professor allowed him unrestrained access to his library and collections, and readily assisted him with advice and information.
· Linnæus did not confine himfelf to botany, but turned also his attention to the inferior orders of the animal kingdom; a branch of knowledge in which he eminently excelled, and which he was. led to profecute froin a circumstance that would have damped the árdour of a less zealous inquirer. In endeavouring to form a collection of infects, he was stung by the furia infernalis in fo terrible a manner, that his life was endangered: This event incited his. researches to discover the nature and qualities of that venomous worm, which led him to develope and explain those numerous tribe of insects and worms, that had been but imperfectly described by preceding naturalists ; and afterwards to throw new light upon the whole animal kingdom."
Mr. Coxe, during his progress through Swedcti, could not avoid being struck with a surprising resemblance between the English and Swedish languages, not only in single words, but in whole phrases ; 1o that a quick English ear may comprehend many exprefsions in common conversation.
* Among other instances of this kind,” says our traveller, “I heard the postilions cry out, Come, let us go ;'-' let us fee;'land ftill;' hold your tongue;' go on. I naturally inquired
their meaning of my interpreter, and found that they had the same fignification as in our own language. They are for the most part, Pronounced more like the Scottish than the English accent; and in: deed, in general, the Swedes appeared to me as if they were talking broad Scotch. Nor is this any matter of wonder; for it is probable, that the Scottish mode of speaking is the same as was formerly used in England; and that, while we have gradually foftened our pronunciation, the Scots have retained it."
Our author, on liis entrance, describes the passage of the Sound, Ellinoor, and the Castle and Palace of Cronborg; the prison of the late unfortunate Queen Matilda.
" This princess, during her confinement, inhabited the governor's apartment, and had permission to walk upon the fide batteries, or upon the leads of the tower. She was uncertain of the fate that awaited her; and had great reason to apprehend, that the party which had occafioned her arreit, meditated ftill more violent measures. When the English minister at Copenhagen brough an order for her enlargement, which he had obtained by his fpirited conduct, She was fo surprized with the unexpected intelligence, that she inftantly burst into a flood of tears, embraced him in a transport of joy, and called him her deliverer. After a short conference, the minister proposed, that her Majefty hould immediately embark on board of a thip that was waiting to carry her from a kingdom, in which the had experienced fuch a train of inisfortunes. But, however anxious he was to depart, one circumstante checked the excess of her joy : a few months before her imprisontent; the bad been delivered of a princess, whom the suckled herself. The rearing of this child had been her only comfort ; and she had conceived a more than parental attachment to its from its having been the con. ttant companion of her misery. The infant was at that period afflicted with the meafles; and, having nursed it with unceasing solicitude, she was desirous of continuing her attention and care.All these circumstances had fo endeared the child to her, rendered more succeptable of tenderness in a prifon than in a court, that when an order for detaining the young princess was intimated to her, the testified the ftrongeit emotions of grief, and could not, for some time, be prevailed upon to bid a final adieu. At length, after beftowing repeated carefles upon this darling object of her affection, the retired to the vessel in an agony of despair. She remained upon deck, her eyes immoveably directed towards the palace of Cronborg, which contained her child that had been so long her only comfort, until darkness intercepted the view. The vefiel having made but little way during the night, at day-break she observed with fond fatisfaction, that the palace was still visible; and could not be perfuaded to enter the cabin as long as she could discover the faintest glimpse of the battlements.
“ It is well known, that her Majesty resided at Zell, where she was carried off, by a scarlet fever, in the sixteenth day of her illnefs."
Mr. Coxe proceeds to give an account of the garden of Hamict, and the history of Hanilet, from Saxo Grammati
cos. He describes Copenhagen, and his reception at the court. He traces the form of government anciently established in Denmark; the causes and events which preceded andaffected the Revolution of 1660, when the constitution was changed from an elective and limited, to an hereditary and absolute monarchy. In his tour into this country, he makes various remarks on its population, finances, the army and navy, literature and religion, Departing from Copenhagen, he pursues his journey, through Zealand and Holstein. At Odensee, the seat of a Bishop, he finds the sepulchre of John King of Denmark, and of his son Christian II. from whence he takes occasion to give a sketcha of the lives and fortunes of thefe princes.
During his progress through Sweden and Denmark, our traveller remarked, with attentive curiosity, many of those regular circles of stones which are so frequently scattered, not only over the face of these countries, but of our own -On thele monuments he observes, that they do not all appear to have had the same original destination. Soine were raised as memorials of material events; others, as seo pulchres; but the greatest part were probably places or ob. jects of sacred worship.
Of this performance ịt may be said, in general, that it is a work of labour and understanding, bụtutterly devoid of taste or originality. The best part of it is compiled from the writings of other authors, which, it is but jạttice to observe, Mr. Coxe candidly acknowledges.
ART. V. Orvations on the Animal Oeconomy, and on the Çauses
and Cure of Difcafes. By John Gardiner, M. D. President of the Royal College of Pkyficians, and Fellow of the Royal Society
of Edinburgh. 8vo. 6s. boards. Edinburgh. Creech. THIS Work is divided into fe&tions, and those into pa
ragraphs numerically arranged; in the first fe&tion the Author treats of the living principle in animals.
After a Thort introduction explaining the utility and necessity of the subject, Dr. Gardiner gives a definition of the living prin. ciple in animals, in the following words.
By the living principle is understood, that power which, in an animal, actuates it's whole system, or from which is derived sensation, mocion, and life; it is the cause of the preservation of the body from diffolution, and is capable of existing for some time under a fufpenfion of all its actions.'
Having given this definition in the Writer's own words, we shall now present our readers in a cursory manner with all he says on the living principle. The chief seat of the living principle, though it be exY 3
tended to every part of the body, seems to be in the brain, cerebellum, and spinal marrow. This opinion confirmed by quotation from Dr. Alexander Monro's work on the Structure and Functions of the Nervous System. The brain may do the office of a gland to furnish á fluid for its growth and nourishment, and for moistening the contents of the encephalon, but he cannot admit the idea of an animal fpirit being separated from the blood, and circulated through the brain for the purposes of motion, senfation, and life. This, he very judiciously observes, would be a secretion of the living principle itself, which is an abfurdity. The nerves originating from the brain, cerebellum, and spinal marrow, are the medium of conveyance to the living principle; the power and quantity of which seems to be more considerable in certain conditions of the brain and nerves; an inexplicable phænomenon.
A degree of heat from 96 to 98, of Farenheit's thermometer is necessary to support the living principle; which possesses to a certain degree the power of resisting the effects of heat and cold.
The principle of life exifts from the time of conception, though the first vital motion observable in the chick, is the pun&tum saliens, or beginning of the heart's motion. Analogy leads us to conclude, that it is the same in the human foetus.
Sympathy between the heart and lungs, thoughı seemingly not existing in the foetus, is so remarkable as foon as the child is born, that it appears the action of either cannot ex, ist separately. Hence the recovery of persons apparently drowned, by blowing air into the lungs, and other phænomena of thə fame kind accounted for. Respiration, the circulation, and heat, appear therefore to be the chief bonds by which the union of the living principle with the body is maintained. Arguments in favour of Mr. Johi Hunter's opinion, that part of the living principle is inherent in the blood-debility from repeated bleeding-loss of strength, and even death from sudden and violent hæmorrhages. Blood in circulation undergoing no change at one hundred degrees of heat,' while with the same heat out of the body, it could not be preserved a few hours from putrefaction.
Living principle must be acted upon by the nerves, otherwise it loses its vigour, and becomes at last extinct, Remains however in the body some time after the vital functions are destroyed-May be suspended and stimulated into action again-instance, recovery of persons apparently drowned. Sensibility of the nerves, and their faculty of conducting the powers of the living principle, greatest dufing the growth of the body :-hence the gradual declension