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many polemical divines contending, tanquam pro aris & focis for their own opinions in matters that do not regard the vitals of reli, gion. Mr. Richards writes with a levity unbecoming his character and with a contempt of the Church of Rome, and all the eitablished churches of the reformation that is very reprehenfible. He draws every thing into his own vortex of immerhon, and wherever he finds the doctrine of infant sprinkling adopted, he damns its patrons as antichristians, thus narrowing the Church of God that has furrired the wrecks of Empires, into the sinall number who, on the subject of water baptism, which is but the baptism of John, or the law, and tar inferior to the baptism or purification by the holy fpirit, think as he does,

For the ENGLISH REVIEW.

NATIONAL

A F F AIR S.

REFORM BILL.

TH *HE general predictions concerning the fate of Mr. Pitt's Re

form bill, have in the course of this month been verified, not greatly we may presume, to his mortification. There was, in reality, no necessity for iuch a reform as was proposed. The people whenever they are unanimous, or nearly unanimous in any matter, can make their voice to be heard and felt without any addition to the number of their representatives in Parliament. Of this truth, the nation had of late a ftriking proof in the destruction of the coalition. The voice of the nation which, on that occaficn, supported the weaker branch of the legislature against the stronger, would more easily support the stronger againft the weaker.-In free govern

. ments important changes are not usually brought about without a very general confent and approbation among the different orders of fociety. It was thus that the revolution was effected. A wish for a political reforin was never general throughout the nation. an idea that occurred to the political genius of Lord Chatham on the rack to invent an engine for subverting the power of Lord Bute, which, it is well known, he dreaded above all other objects of ter

This idea defcended as an inheritance to his son. It has for years been cherished by men in opposition to government. But, as . it was rather a whim or political conceit, than a measure founded in any real neceffity, it has been exploded by the general good fenfe of the people of England, who are not apt to court innovation, but have, as they well may, a respect for antient infiitutions and forms.

It was

lor.

SINKING FUND.

Administration have served their country more effentially, than they would have done, by any political reform, by setting apart fo confiderable a sum as a million sterling annually for the gradual reduction of the national debt. This is a pleafing proof of the vait resources of this country. Such efforts of finances had they been

predicted

predicted half a century ago, would have been considered as chimerical.

But, as in the progress of life, every man of business, where nothing adverfe happens, if he increases his expences by extending his trade, increases also his income ; so nations go on for a time, accumulating at once wealth and expences. There is an increase of industry, invention, and capital : and it is impoflible to determine the precise point where this increase shall be arrested.

IRISH AFFAIRS. Numerous obstacles daily arise to the plan for settling an ami'cable connection with Ireland. The manufacturers of England, the great nerve of the nation, oppose regulations in which they see, or imagine they see, their own ruin. It may however be a century, such is the indolence of the Hibernians, before the evils dreaded by our manufacturers overtake them: the love of gain is quickfighted, and a very provident paffion. It is feldom that politicians are so much moved by a contideration of objects fo diftant as those which have alarmned the British manufacturers.

SC O T L A N D. A very large sum has been granted by parliament for the purpose of building a new college at Edinburgh. This is one among a number of favours lately extended to North-Britain. It is realonable, that this ancient kingdom should profit by the American revolt, and the consequent pliancy of the legislature, as well as other countries. Yet it may be doubted, whether the application of any extentive fum for the building of a magnificent college at Edinburgh, be a wise or proper expenditure of the public money. The celebrity of the Scotch universities, does not depend, any more than that of the Scotch church, on external magnificence or rich endowments. It is only by the same arts that acquired their fame, that they can maintain it. The nerve that obtains eminence of any kind, is generally relaxed where there appears a solicitude to display and support it by external decoration. Reasoning, therefore, from this symptom, we should be led to fear, left the glory of the second Temple should not be equal to that of the firft. And certainly, from that viciffitude, which is incidental to literature, we may foretell, that the day will arrive, when the Muses shall take their flight from the capital of Scotland, and leave their new palace as a monumental sepulchre of that reputation by which it was founded.

This, however, is an event that is by no means to be wished for ; and we hope that the Patrons of the University of Edinburgh will be stimulated from the generofity of the government to bestow their best care in filling up such vacancies as may happen in this illustrious seminary of learning, with men of the most approved abilities ; that for the future they will suffer no profefforship to be bought; and that they will permit no profeffors to enjoy their salaries, who discharge not the duties to which they are bound.

SPAIN

SPAIN and PORTUGAL

The face of the world, for the perfection of human nature and the happiness of mankind, is broken into different kingdoms by rivers, and seas, and mountains, and vast desarts. Though policy or arms may supercede these boundaries for a time, nature resümes her prerogative at laft, and extends or contra€ts whatever limits are not of her appointment. That great peninsula which is bounded on the north-east by the Pyrenean mountains, and on every other side by the ocean, seems destined to form the strongest monarchy in Eyrope. The double marriages between Spain and Portugal, haye a. tendency to fulfill the intentions of nature, and to reduce these kingdoms into one empire, respectable under any circumstances, but with liberty and the arts, formidable to the other governments. of Europe. If it Mall be the fortune of Spain to give an heir to the crown of Portugal, the power of the. Bourbons will be of greater extent than ever. If on the contrary, the Spanish throne shall in the process of time, be filled by a descendant of the House of Bras; ganza, there is an end of the famous family compact, and Spain and France, as heretofore, will be actuated against each other by the animosity of proud and hated rivals.

The naval preparations in the port of Cadiz, have doubtless, for their object, the security, perhaps the extension, of the Spanish power in the West Indies.

* Our Account of Dr. Priestley's Letters to Dr. Horsley, Part II. is unavoidably deferred to the next Number.

THE

ENGLISH REVÍ EW.

For M À Y, 1785.

ART. 1. A Collection of Theological Tracts. By Richard Watfoni

D. D. F. R. S. Lord Bishop of Landaff, and Regius Professor of Divinity, in the University of Cambridge, 8vo.6 Vols. 185.

Merril, Cambridge. Evans, London. 1785. THE editor of this publication is already well known to all

the lovers of manliness of fentiment, and of gehuine Chriftianity. The volumes before us, as the qualities they principally exhibit are rectitude of judgment, and patience of selection, may not perhaps add much to the reputation lie enjoys, as a polished and eloquent writer. But they will certainly add to the praise, which is not only more worthy of the Chriftian divine; but upon which a higher estimation will be placed by every man of elevated sentiments, the “ praise of true desert" and disinterested exertion for the benefit of fociety:

The purpose of the work will perhaps be best stated in the language of the compiler.

• In publishing this collection of Theological Tracts I have had no other end in view; but to afford young persons of every

denomination, and especially to afford the Students in the Univerlities, and the younger Clergy, an easy, opportunity of becoming better ac quainted with the grounds and principles of the Christian Religion than, there is reason to apprehend; many of them at present are. My first intention was to have admitted into the collection, such {mall tracts only in Latin or English on Theological subjects as had funk into unmerited oblivion ; but, on mature reflection, I thought it better to cohsült the general utility of the younger and less informed clergy, thian to aim at gratifying the curiolity, or improving the understanding of those who were more advanced in years and Eng. Rev. Vol. V. May 1785.

х

knowledge,

knowledge. Instead therefore of confining myself to single tracts I have not scrupled to publish some intire books, but they are books of such acknowledged worth, that no clergy man ought to be unacquainted with their contents, and by making them a part of this collection, they may chance to engage the attention of many who would otherwise have overlooked them. It would have been an easy matter to have laid down an extenfive plan of study for young divines, and to have made a great shew of learning by introducing into it a systematic arrangement of historians, critics, and commentators, who in different ages and in different languages, have employed their talents on Theological Subjects. But there is a fashion in itudy as in other pursuits ; and the taste of the present age is not calculated for the making great exertions in Theological criticism and Philology. I do not conlider the tracts which are here published as sufficient to make what is called a deep divinė, but they will go a great way towards making, what is of more worth a well informed Christian. In divinity, perhaps, more than in any other science, it may be reckoned a virtue aliqua nefcire; for what Quinctilian observes of historical, is certainly very applicable to an abundance of Theological 'writings.—Persequi quidem quod quisque umquam vel contemptifimorum hominum dixerit, aut nimiæ miferiæ, aut inanis jadantiæ eft: et detinet arque obruit Ingenia, melius aliis vacatura.

The contents of the several volumes are,

“Vol. I. Dr. Johı Taylor's Scripture Divinity._Reflections on the Books of the Holy Scripture to establish the Truth of the Christian Religion, by Peter Allix.”

“ Vol. II. History of the Apostles, by Nathaniel Gardner, D. D.”

66 Vol. III. Differtation on the Ancient Versions of the Bible, by Thomas Brett, D. D.-Historical Account of the several English Translations, by Anthony Johnson.-Introduction to the reading of the Holy Scriptures, by Messrs. Beaufobie and L’Enfant.-Key to the Apoftolical Writings, by John Taylor, D.D.-Plain Reasons for being a Christian, by Samuel Chandler, D.D."

" Vol. IV. Reasonableness of Christianity, by M. Locke -Discourse on natural and revealed Religion, by Dr. Sam. Clarke.-Discourse on Prophecy, from Discourses by John Smith.-Essay on the Teaching and Witness of the Holy Spirit, from Lord Barrington's Miscellanea Sacra.--Essay on Inspiration.-Effay to show that no Text of Scripture has more than one single sense, from Benson on the Epistles.

• Vol. V. Of the Truth of the Christian Religion, from Hartley on Man.-Ditto, by Addison. Of our Saviour's Predictions concerning the Destruction of Jerusalem, from Lardner's Jewish and Heathen Testimonies. Of the Probability of the Gospel History, from Macknight's Truth of the Gospel History Of the Man of Sin, from Benson on

the

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