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• There is, Sire, a facred principle in all republics ; that they are instituted, not for the governing, but for the governed. A view of the diffenfions with which we have been agitated since the beginning of this century will prove to Your MAJESTY, that when this principle is trampled under foot, magistracy is unrestrained, the spring of public confidence broken, and the tranquillity of the state destroyed.

• A perspective of these revolutions, each exhibiting a scen remarkable for the crimes of ambition, the long forbearance of the people, and the duplicity of their rulers, will enable your MAJESTY to discover the source of all our calamnities, in the manner wherein the heads of the state have affected to let themselves above the opinion of the public, and to despise that general confidence, which įs the fundamental principle of our free association. How can one man rule twenty millions ? faid one of your ablest ministers By public opinion.

• And would the magistrates of a small state pretend to ground their power on any other bafis than that of Yours? Shali it be pollible for them to throw off the falutary yoke of this confidence, the most powerful of guarantees, which ought to be still more precious to them than even to us, since it is at once the true substitute where the law is imperfect, the itrength of the rulers, and their ipoft pleafing recompente.

'To deceive themselves in the loss of this poffeffion our rich men continually repeat that the Genevese are' honest but mistaken. Sire, whoever will have influence enough to persuade You that the voice of the people is directed by error, will haye diverted you of Your first glory the reward the most worthy of Your exertions.

• But Your MAJESTY, who well knows how to honour and appreciate the opinion of the public, knows also that it cannot be long deceived; and after having announced to the universe, that You would reign by confidence alone, You will not affift the aristocratic faction in annihilating the first of our laws, the only one that can compel them to deserve it.

Such is the length to which they have been carried by the pre: judices of education, by false calculations of their real interests, and che too natural lust of power. However they imagine themselves already in the road to triumph: from a slight commotion they have brought us into real danger. Even blood is perhaps going to he fhed! And what blood Almighty God! the blood of the inno, cent, ...

· The most alarming preparations surround our frontiers. Our neighbours, instead of the olive-branch of negotiation, brandish before our eyes the sword of war. What have we done, what crime of ours can justify such measures ? SIRE, we neither sue for pardon nor mercy; it is justice we implore, We claim the support of a consti: tution that is our right, that is displeasing to the rich, and that we only asked to preserve unaltered. But let us once be left to ourselves, let ambition have no, foreign aslistance to rely on, and peace

will foon be restored by mutual facrifices ; never would it have been disturbed, without the hope of that assistance.

Such, Sire is the general voice of the Genevese ; such is the opinion of the public acquainted with the cause of our misfortunes!


. But no! YOUR MAJESTY will not drive to despair the inhabit164 D'Ivernois's Historical View of the Revolutions of Geneva, As long as we can entertain a hope of making that opinion reach Your throne, we shall claim it as our shield, and our confidence will be grounded on the virtues of Your ministers. · Could we harbour a thought that they would abuse their power to opprefs us, we should have nothing left but despair ; but we flatter ourselves that truth will force its way'; and happen what will, our resistance will be the noblest homage that can ever be paid to their intentions and to those of Your MAJESTY.

We are told from every quarter that resistance will terminate in 'our destruction. Without doubt; we are conscious of our weakness of the smallness of our number and the impoffibility of succeeding : but we have before our eyes our rights our oaths, those of free nations, and the title of citizens of Geneva, of which we are determined to be worthy to our latest breath. If'we must renounce our laws.

we shall only have to desert a country we were unable to defend or to pay it our last duty by falling with it, and honourably losing an existence wbich, destitute of liberty, would be ignominious to us.

• There is one truth more I have to lay at the foot of YOUR MAJESTY'S throne, a truth of great importance to the glory of Your reign, and to the tranquillity of our minds--that if we thus fall victims to the intrigues of a few of our men in opulence, if we are crushed under the weight of Your power, pofterity that judges kings, posterity, whose approbation You daily endeavour to deserve will fit às arbiter between You and us, compare the good You have done Your subjects with Your conduct to the Genevese, and, not knowing that YOUR MAJESTY and Your ministers were bafely deceived, will believe that Geneva was destroyed, because republican virtues must be displeasing to kings. ants of a city, distinguished by its profperity, and honoured by citizens, whose only ambition was to render it a feminary of enlightened useful and virtuous men. SIRE! Deign to cast an eye upon

Geneva and behold Yourself what a structure the hands of liberty have erect. ed on this barren spot. I often contemplate it with transport, and exclaim; no! it is not Lewis the fixteenth that will destroy the work of liberty and the asylum of virtue! ... My country will flourish and preserve her freedom ; or if the ever loses her liberty, industry will take its fight along with it: Geneva fhall then be but a dungeon öfflavery, and the court of some opulent and depraved men; no longer will it fix the attention of philosophers; and if it be still inhabited, no industry, no citizen, no Genevese will be found amongst its inhabitants.

• These are, SIRE, the great truths, faithfully delineated in the history of our revolutions." This history is founded on authentic facts and I prefume to hope that some generous mind will make it known to Your MAJESTY. The author's name is consigned to oblivion ; it would add but little weight to this attempt. Born amongst the people, I boast no other title but that of Citizen of Geneva, and the only reward I aspire to, is to see the triumph of innocence. We shall not think that triumph dearly bought at any price; we shall support with cqual constancy, calumny and its concomitant, 'misfortune ; convinced that misfortune will cease the moment YOUR MAJESTY


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shall be informed of it. Alas! If Your MAJESTY disclaims affisting virtue in obfcurity and distress, where will it henceforth meet protectors worthy of it?

On the whole of this addrefs, for our limits will permit us to infert but a part of it, we obferve that, however quick the passion by which it is dictated, however great the vivacity of its transitions, and its bold claims to freedom; there is, in reality, a degree of adulation in it, which does not perfectly accord with the erect fpirit of unbroken liberty. A free citizen supplicating the protection of a neighbouring despot, and paying him compliments on his regard to the rights of mankind, is rather an object of pity than of respect : and reminds us of the states of Greece imploring the protection of the Romanis against the Macedonians, and of the Macedonians against the Romans; both, in their turns, the moft oppreffive tyrants. Art. IX. Letters from Portugal, Spain, Italy, and Germany, in the

Years 1759, 1760, and 1761. By Christopher Hervey, Esq.

8vo. 3. vols. 185. boards. Faulder. 1585. AFTER the accounts which a variety of travellers

have lately given us of Portugal, Spain, &c. Our author should have considered, before he published three bulky volumes, whether he had any novelty of importance to communicate to his readers. This precaution would have been necessary, even had Mr. Hervey possessed all those talents which are requisite in compositions of this kind'; for, to the jadicious reader, no fuperiority of manner will compensate for his being obliged to follow a guide who informs him of nothing but what he is already well acquainted with. But our author has not even this semblance of an apology. Without discernment, without tafte, without judgment, he diffigures what he means to describe, and inspires us with no thing but a blended sensation of pity and disguft. We thall say no more as to the general character of the work, but leave the writer to characterize his own production.

• You are to consider this as my first and introductory letter to the strict correspondence you have desired. The writing so much is no trouble, for as I shall do it without considering what I write, I do it likewise without difficulty:

• You know already that the papers I am to send you are to be upon any subject, as it is the liberty you allow me in writing, that makes them no trouble. You are to consider these productions as 'a strange mixture of incoherences; among which, however, you may chance to find some little matter that suits your taste. All' Í

engage "for, is to daub a sheet of paper over with a black Auid called ink; reducing it into certain hieroglyphical characters called letters ; which letters shall be put together into little packets called words; and this

is all I promise : reserving to myself the full and absolute power of writing in what language or style I please; intelligible or not; good, bad, or indifferent.

Mr. H. has succeeded but too well in producing a strange mixture of incoherence.' It is apparent that, when he was at a loss for matter, he has transcribed whatever was at hand. Hence the law proceedings at length against the Duke of Aveiro, the Marquis of Tavora and the other conspirators againft the late king of Portugal, from p. 49. v. 1. to p. 115: the insertion of lieutenant Sutherland's account of the loss of the Litchfield on the coast of Barbary, from p. 169 to 200; the confession of John Albani a Roman coachman, who had murdered three old women, 18 pages, his advocate's defence 28 p. the prince of St. Severo's letters on the disco. very of a perpetual fire, 28 p. papers relative to the difputes between the courts of Rome and Portugal, 42 p: with numerous extracts from Gratian, the clever Feyjoo, Camoens, &c. &c. so that we do not think that above a third of the volumes before us is original matter. However we must confess that what is really his is truly original. A few short specimens will convince the public of the truth of what we advance. What a clear idea will the reader have of Por. tici from the following elegant and satisfactory description.

We waited a long time before we could meet with the inan who keeps the key of the palace, to fhew it us, There is nothing, how, ever, very particular, though all very fine and pleasing. The staircafe pretty, and the rooms gay. One full of pictures, another full of English furniture, another of china, and so on. The china cabinet, for so they call the room, furnithed with that manufacture, is a very jemcrack thing indeed. The ornaments were made at a fabric of china which the king of Spain had set up at Naples, but which he has now removed to Madrid. Though they did not work bad, yet they never equalled Dresden china, or some other European fabrics.'

In his account of the rise of Venice, which is above the level of his usual diction, it will be perceived how miserably he has mauled poor Priscian's head.

« Venice was first inhabited by little better than fishermen, who Aed from the continent during the incursions of the Huns and Goths, and fought for liberty in a set of poor little islands rising out of the Adriatic gulph. So early amidst rocks and sea-weed arose this famous republic. It foon got something into its present form of go: vernment, and as their citizens increased, the illands were squared with piles, and Areets formed, which to the wondering eye present a *canal of water. Success and opulence rendered the edifices more magnificent, till at length that queen of the Adriatic, towards which my bark is now gently gliding, threw up her proud towers towards "heaven, and seemed to exult over

the subjected waves," Qur author's description of the cathedral of Cordova is of a piece with that of Portici.


· Nothing, however, have I found particular in this place, except the cathedral, which is, indeed, a most remarkable building. It was anciently a Moorish mosque, but from the time of the Africans being driven out of Spain has been converted into a church. It is supported as they say by three hundred and fixty-five columns, as many as there are days in the year, and is upon the whole one of the moit curious buildings I ever saw. It is extremely spacious, but its height is very inconsiderable, though aided at certain spaces by skylights, which, I think, are the only windows.'

How much will the reader profit by this delineation. The cathedral we are informed is " a most remarkable building, sa most curious building, supported by 365 columns, as they ** say, extremely spacious, but the height very inconfider*** able, though aided by sky-lights” (how that should add to the height we know not)“ which,” for aught he knows to the contrary, " are the only windows."

Though we sometimes meet with books which contain as little information as the present volumes, yet we recollect none in which we have fo often been disgusted by vulgarisms and ungrammaticat expreffions. To these may be added some words and phrases which seem peculiar to the author, and which originate we suspect in the writer's ignorance of the force and meaning of the terms he employs. A few of each shall be noticed as they occur. • To institute rights in " honour of Neptune. - The place I was to lay at. “ I “ suppose he (the comet) must be now visible-'Whether it $ (the comet) be the same."-" Our conversation rolled

much about Spain.”_" Ready to afcend my chaise”-“ As “ soon as my chaise stopped I dismounted._" From thence fwe scanced away to contracts.”_" I accomplished a hearty ” meal."-". We at last arrived to the place where we were to “ dine.” It is to be observed that he constantly arrives to every place through the 3 vols. « Their cloaths set upon

them in a very awkward manner." The verbs set and fit are misapplied and confounded throughout the work. “Gold “ alone can never make a nation plentiful.“As soon as

each has finished, crossed himself and put on hats, he con«« tinues." How many hats does a Spaniard wear at the same time ?” “ We were obliged to go over it (the river) in a ferry.” This expression is to be met with repeatedly, Passed through many queer fort of places.” “ Limbo,” he tells us, “ is a nasty, dark ugly place, adjoining to hell," and that a poem of Voltaire's “is not ugly.” Speaking of the lava of Mount Vesuvius, he informs us “ Various houses

too were in its way, which it has occupied, flinging down “ fome, and surrounding others." This lava is a very bad tenant indeed! But we should be glad to know if Mr. H. had pulled down one house, and surrounded another, whether he


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