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coats of the lacteals, which he says, are exactly fimilar to,
, to prevent transudation ; and which
Valyes of the absorbents numerous ; fimilar to those of veins. According to Hewson, no valves in the abforbents of fish; but found in all aninials breathing air,
Manner in which these veffels perform abforption, fuppof=' ed to be by capillary attraction. Reasons, from analogy in the fluid taken up by the puncta lacrymalia. And from the absorption of the fluid in the semicircular canals and cochlea of the car, perforined in this way. Mode of absorption ingeniously investigated.
Animal bodies have power of ahsorbing folids as well as fluids, first taught by Mr. John Hunter. Exemplified by Mr. Cheston's case of the thoracic duct containing calcareous earth absorbed from a spine ventosa of the os ilium. : Application to diseases. Earth of bone probably absorbed in the mollities offium, and carried out of the body by the urinary secretions. Many phænomena in the animal ceconomy explained only from this principle.
Orifices of the lactcals, from the villofe coat of the intef tines, first described and delineated by Lieberkühn, who gives a very particular account of them, and describes also the ampullulæ.
Hewson denied the existence of these ampullulæ. The only subsequent anatomift besides our Author, who has described them, is the ingenious Mr. Cruikfhank. 'Mr. Sheldon has also found them in the human fubject, and has several preparations of them in his collection. They are admirably and distinctly fhewn in plate. I. of this work. The orifices of the ampullulæ shewn in plate. 11. taken from Lieberkühn.;
The lacteals traced from their origin to their termination in the thoracic duct. Mr. Sheldon, while a student at the Westminster Hospital, found, in persons who died with ulcers on the villofe coats of the inteftincs, the lacteal trunks
under the peritoneal coat, much more conspicuous, than in other subjeéts; and had therefore an opportunity of injecting them with quicksilver, together with some mesenteric glands of the first order.
From the same diseased subject he has shewn the lacteals running in the longitudinal direction of the intestine. See fig. 3. of plate II.
The lacteals perform the office of lymphatics to the ina testines. No lymphatics distinct from these.
Two orders of lacteal vessels. Vafa lactea ingredientia, feu primi generis-& vasa lactea egredientia, feu fecundi generis. This alludes to their entering into and coming out of the mesenteric glands. A division of no confequence in anatomy or physiology. Lacteal and lymphatic glands; more numerous in the fætus and in children than in adults,
The fifth plate represents a portion of the human jejunum, in which the thoracic duct appears filled from throwing quicksilver into the lacteals on the surface of the intestine. The author observes that in making this preparation, the quicksilver poured into the lymphatic injecting pipe to fill these vessels, ran out in a full stream by the jugular vein.
Tlius hath our ingenious professor traced and given delineations of the lacteal vessels from their orifices, and of their numerous ramifications and course through the mesentery and its glands, to their termination in the thoracic duct'; which hath not yet been fully done by any preceding anatomift. The plates annexed are most accurately drawn and most beautifully engraved. The second part of this curious work, which we hope will soon appear, is to complete the anatomy of the rest of the absorbent system, and which may indeed be considered from these and all the other modern dircoveries made in it, as a new system in the animal deconomy:
Art. V. The Principles of Moral and Political Philofophy. By
William Paley, M. A. Archdeacon of Carlisle, 4to. il. is. Boards.
dignity. The author, after some preliminary confiderations, sets himself to treat formally of moral obligation. He then inquires into the relative duties which are determinate and indeterminate. From these topics he passes to the duties which result from the constitution of the sexes. He next enumerates our duties to ourselves, and towards God. And then he concludes his speculations by an exhibițion of the elements of political knowledge.
Upon topics fo fertile and so interesting, there was room for displays of genius, erudition, and eloquence. But no such displays are to be found in the volume before us. 'The author, who for many years was a tutor or teacher in one of the Universities, had occasion to prelect to his pu-, pils upon the subjects which he examines in the present work; and the notes which afGfted him in this talk appear here in an amplified form. His sketches are every where rude and imperfect. His reading both upon morals and polity is narrow and confined. He exhibits the efforts of a itudent, and not the perfection of a master.
The more important books upon morality and jurisprudence, never feem to have engaged his attention. Yet, he is impressed with the notion, that his observations are of great folidity; and that his atchievements deserve an extensive notice. His vanity and the inefficacy of his toils are in a striking oppofition, and do not serve to recommend him to favour. His professional pedantry is also prominent, and must be disgusting to men, who are distinguished by liberality and candour. But though he is attached to the church to which he belongs, he is by no means to be considered as a bigot. In general, he is friendly to toleration and to the rights of mankind. While we allow him however this merit, it is a justice which we owe to literature, to our readers, and to ourselves to obferve, that his ideas are common; and that we discover in his writings no traces of originality or invention. He is to be ranked in the humble station of a compiler, who is not deftitute of vivacity, and who retails the thoughts of other men with a considerable share of popularity and precifion. And, indeed, notwithstanding his importance to himself, which is sufficiently ceremonious and flattering, he has freely confessed that he has the greatest obligation to the writings of the late Abraham Tucker, Esq; part of which were published by himself, and the remainder since his death, under the title of “ The Light of Nature
pursued by Edward Search, Efq;"
Though our admiration is not excited by the abilities of our author, it yet becomes us to exhibit a specimen of them tv our readers. Having started the topic of the advantages of a power over property, he furnishes the following observations concerning wills.
• From the confideration that wills are the creatures of the munia cipal laws which give them their efficacy, may be deduced a deter-, mination of the question, whether the intention of the testator in an informal will be binding upon the conscience of those, who, by. operation of law, succeed to his eitate. By ari informal will, 1 mean a will void in law, for want of fome requisite formality, though no doubt be entertained of it's meaning or authenticity: as 5
fuppofe a man make his will, devising his freehold eftate to his filter's son, and the will be attested by two only, instead of three subscribing witnesses ; would the brother's son, who is heir at law to the testator, be bound in consciençė, to resign his claim to the estate, out of deference to his uncle's intention ? Or, on the contrary, would not the devifee under the will be bound; upon discovery of this flaw in it, to surrender the estate, suppose he had gaina ed poffeffion of it, to the heir at law?
Generally speaking, the heir at law is not bound by the intention of the testator. For the intention can fignify nothing, unless the person intending have a right to.govern the descent of the estate: That is the first question. Now this right the teftator can only derive from the law of the land; but the law confers the right upon certain conditions, which conditions. he has not complied with. Therefore the testator can lay no claim to the power which he pretends to exercise, as he, hath not entitled himself to the benefit of that law, by virtue of which alone, the estate ought to attend his disposal. Consequently the devifee under the will, who, by concealing this flaw in it, keeps poffeffion of the eltate, is in the fituation of any other person, who avails himself of his neighbour's ignorance, to detain from him his property. The will is to much waste paper, from the defect of right in the person who made it. Nor is this catching at an expression of law to pervert the fubstantial defign of it, for I apprehend it to be the deliberate mind of the legislature, that no will should take effect upon real estates, unless authenticated in the precise manner which the statute describes. Had testamená tary difpofitions been founded in any natural right, independant of positive constitutions, I should have thought differently of this ques. tion. For then I should have considered the law, rather as refofing it's affistance to enforce the right of the devisee, than as extinguishing, or working any alteration in the right itself.
* And after all, I should chuse to propose a case, where no confideration of pity to distress, duty to a parent, or gratitude to a benefactor, interfered with the general rule of justice.
The regard due to kindred in the disposal of our fortune, (ex: cept the case of lineal kindred, which is different) arises, either from the respect we owe to the presumed intention of the ancestor, from whom we received our fortunes, or from the expectations we have encouraged. The intention of the ancestor is presumed with greater certainty, as well as entitled to more refpect, the fewer degrees he is removed from us, which makes the difference in the different degrees of kindred. It may be presumed to be a father's intention and delire, that the inheritance he leaves, after it has ferved the turn and generation of one fon, should remain a provifion for the families of his other children, equally related, and dear to him as the eldests, Whoever therefore, without cause, gives away his patrimony from his brother's or sister's family, is guilty not so much of an injury to them, as of ingratitude to his parent. The deference due from the poffeffor of a fortune, to the presumed desire of his ancestor, will also vary with this circumstance, whether the ancestor earned the fortune by his personal industry, acquired it by accidental fucceffes, or only transmitted the inheritance which he received.
Where a man's fortune is acquired by himself, and he has done nothing to excite expectation, but rather refrained from those partiçular attentions which tend to cherish expectation, he is perfectły, disengaged from the force of the above reafons, and at liberty to leave his fortune to his friends, to charitable or public purposes, or to whom he will ; the same blood, proximity of blood, and the like, are merely modes of speech, implying nothing real, nor any obligation of themselves,
• There is always, however, a reason for providing for our poor relations, in preference to others who may be equally neceffitous, which is, that if we do not, no body else will; mankind, by an established confent, leaving the reduced branches of good families to the bounty of their wealthy alliances.
The not making a will is a very culpable omislion, where it is attended with the following effects : where it leaves daughters or younger children at the mercy of the eldest son; where it distributes a personal fortune equally amongst the children, although there be no equality in their exigences or lituations, where it leaves an opening for litigation, or lastly, and principally, where it defrauds creditors; for by a defect in our laws, which has been long and strangely overlooked, real estates are not subject to the payment of debts by fimple contract, unless made so by will; although credit is in fact generally given to the posseision of such estates. He therefore, who neglects to make the necessary appointments for the payment of his debts, as far as his effects extend, fins, as it has been justly said in his grave; and, if he omits this on purpose to defeat the demands of his creditors, he dies with a deliberate fraud in his heart.
Anciently, when any one died without a will, the billiop of the diocese took poffeffion of his personal fortune, in order to dispose of it for the benefit of his soul, that is, to pious or charitable uses. It became necessary therefore, that the bishop should be satisfied of the authenticity of the will, when there was any, before he resigned the right he had to take possession of the dead man's fortune, in case of intestacy: In this way, wills, and controversies relating to wills; came within the cognizance of ecclesiastical courts ; under the jurisdiction of which, wills of personals (the only wills that were made formerly) still continue; thoughi; in truth, no more now-a-days conbiected with religion, than any other instruments of coriveyance.
"Succession in eftates must be regulated by positive rules of lawi there being no principle of natural justice whereby to ascertain the proportion of the differen't claimants; not to inention that the claim itself, especially of collateral kindred, seems to have little foundation in the law of nature. These regulations should be guided by the duty and presumed inclination of the deceased, fo far as these confiderations can be consulted by general rules. The statutes of Charles the fecond, commonly called the itatutes of diftribution, which adopt the rule of the Roman law, in the distribution of pers sonals, are fufficiently equitable. They affiga one third to the widow, and two thirds to the childreri : iñ cale of no children, one half to the widow, and the other half to the next of kin; where heither widow nor lineal descendents lurvive, the whole to the next of kin, and to be equally divided amongst kindred of equal degrees; ENG. Rev. Vol. V. April 1783