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rubbing pretty smartly with the finger upon the ulcer, gare no
• Next morning the patient being carried to the operation-room, I began the compretlion of the nerves, at a quarter before eleven o'clock. The numbnets of the limb followed at the usual time.
• At a quarter before twelve, I gave him one grain of opium, to diminish the smarting of the wound after the operation, when the the compression should be taken off. A few minutes after twelve, the tourniquet was applied, and the amputation performed by Mr. Hunter, at the usual place below the knee. • Ar the circular incision through the skin, the patient did not cry out, change a muscle of his face, or shew any symptom of pain. At the subsequent parts of the operation, particularly during the fasing of the bones, he shewed marks of uneasiness in his counter nance, but did not cry out.
' As it was thought necessary to take up no less than five arteries, the operation laited a longer time than is usual, and towards the latter end he grew faintish, and desired to have some water, and afterwards asked if they were nearly done.
When the operation feemed to be over, and the bleeding stopt, the tourniquet was relaxed, and I also removed the compreffor. But a fmall vellel bleeding unexpectedly, it was thought neceffary to tie it also. Here the patient shewed very strong marks of pain, and afterwards declared, the tying of this last vessel gave him much more pain than all the others, although the great nerves had been included in the ligatures.
• When he was put to bed, the wound smarted, as is usual after amputations, the compreffor being now entirely removed, this was to be expected. But some time after being questioned concerning the puin he had suffered during the operation, he declared that he had felt hardly any, except, as he himself expressed it, at the rasping of the bones, which he added bad shaken his whole limb. This feems a little extraordinary, as fawing the bones is usually the least painful
part of amputations.
Although I expected that the nunaftomofing vessels would carry on a certain degree of circulation, notwithstanding the obitruction of the great trunk, yet I had no idea that it would have been so strong as it was; for on Nackening the tourniquet, the arteries bled per faltun, though the compressing instrument remained in full force on the crural artery.
" This trial had all the fuccefs I expected; there was evidently a inolt remarkable diminution of pain, particularly during the first incisions through the kin and muscles, which are generally by far the most severe parts of the operation. And I am convinced that what pain the patient felt, was chiefly owing to some small branches of the lumbar nerves which extend below the knee, and were not comprefled.
So far our author : the rest of the pamphlet confifts in observations upon a compressor adapted to the axillary plexus, which he thinks, with reason, will act more completely on the arm, than this instrument can poffibly do on the thigh :
in remarks upon the probable advantages that may arise from compressing the nerves in many operations; and in foliciting the members of the profession, to make a fair and candid trial of the method here' suggested, that the certainty of its utility or inutility may be properly ascertained.
We have thus endeavoured to do justice to this ingenious idea by giving a short account of the manner in which it was first suggested to the author's mind; by tracing his gradual improvement of it; and, by transcribing from him. felf the account of the only experiment made in consequence of it on the living body, in the instance of operation.
It is a matter of so much importance to the professors, and to the practice of the healing art, to ascertain the utility of Mr. Moore's discovery, that we earnestly hope with him, that all the faculty will strenuously and candidly exert their efforts for this purpose. In the mean while, we concur with our author in the opinion, that one experiment can never be decisive upon any point. There are so many circumstances which may render an experiment fallacious, that we ought to be much upon our guard in entertaining too fanguine expectations. At the same time, let us be allowed to obi ferve, that the experiment in question, as related by the aua thor, seems very far from being conclusive. The marks of pain which the patient manifested, at those parts of the operation which are generally the least painful, the anxiety he expreffed for its being foon over, are circumstances which seem either to be inconsistent in themselves, or with the subsequent declaration, that he had hardly felt any pain during the operation. At the same time, there is one circumAtance much in favour of the experiment, which is the much greater degree of pain which the patient declared he felt at the tying of the single vessel after the compressing instrument was removed, than he had felt upon the securing of all the other vessels.
But there is another point which occurs as proper to be ascertained, in order fully to establish the utility of this discovery; which is, to observe carefully, the state of the patia ent after operation. It is a doubt naturally arising in out minds, whether upon the return of sensation to the numbed limb, after it has been fo long deprived of it, the irritable state of the part may not be increased in proportion as it has been previously diminished; and thus the smarting and pain Tubfequent to all operations, which is always very terrible to bear, may be so much increased, as to become more infupportable. Thefe are doubts which, in the discussion of this matter, we have thought it our duty to mention, with a sincere hope that they may not be realized; but that the expediency of the method, in the instant of the pain of opera
fion, may be confirmed by repeated trials; that it may be unattended with any troublesome or injurious consequences after operation; and that the author may enjoy the full credit, and honour which will le fo justly due to him for so important a discovery. If even the experiment should hereafter prove unfucceisfol, Mr. Moore will still deserve the warmest commendations for his laudable attempts to alleviate the miferies of mankind.
Art. XII. Loix Pénales : or, Obfervations on Penal Laws,
By M. Du Friche de Valazé; dedicated to the King of France's
work, the author after having flightly noticed the origin of legislation in general, proceeds to that of penal laws in particular, and to the principles upon which they have been founded. He then Thews that penal codes have been as various, as the different forms of government which have adopted them; and have even in many initances : been mo, dified by the nature of the climate.
Helays it down as a rule that universal morality ought always to be the basis of penal laws ; and from hence deduces certain and general rules by which the penal laws of all na; tions may be comprehended.
According:ly, wherever severity is useless, the penal law which enjoins it, is a bad one.
Severity is useless, when the end which it proposes can be ob- . tained without it.
The end which it proposes is the public safety and tranquillity.*
Such are the principles upon which this work is founded, and from which our author concludes, that it is necessary that every nation upon earth should reform its code of penal laws.
The writer then proceeds to give an account of the plan of his work, which is divided into fix books.
In the first book he describes the nature and analysis of human actions ; of virtues, duties, vices, and crimes.
* Ainsi par-tout où la sévérité est inutile, la loi pénale qui la prescrit eft mauvaise.
La severité est inutile, quand la fin quelle fe propose, peut être obtenue fans elle.
La fin quelle sa propose, est la sûreté & la tranquilité publiques.
He divides all human actions into claffes; these he divides again into genera, in the investigation of which, he indicates the species.
He computes'eight different classes of human actions.
Thofe which concern" the government or the body politic; he calls political actions.,
Thofe which concern man in general, independant of his privileges as a member of the body politic; he calls actions from man to man.
Those which concern man in his connections with civil actions; he calls civil actions.
Those which relate to the city or spot where he has fixed his residence; he calls municipal actions.
Those which result from a particular association made in the state, without any necefiary connection with the state itself; he calls actions of a private society.
Those which relate only to the natural members of a family; he calls natural domestic actions
Those which relate only to the natural and accidental meinbers of a family subject to social inítitutions; he calls civil domestic actions.
Those which may arise from the different occupations of men, he calls professional actions.
The writer having thus determined the claffes of human actions, proceeds to consider their genera ; in doing which, he gives a list of the crimes peculiar to cach genus, which he contrasts with another list of the opposite virtues and duties, and compares them with the viccs of the same genus.
In the second book the author ranges the clailes and generą, of actions of the same nature, in their proper order; by which the reader fees at once those virtues which are the most useful, and those duties which are the moft neceffary; at the fame time that he is ihewn the vices which he ought most to detest.
The third book presents the moral and political examination of the heinousness of each particular crime.
The fourth book points out the method of preventing crimes.
The fifth book contains the analysis of those natural connections of mankind which have brought on civilization, together with the origin, nature and progress of society.
The fixth book after having treated of the origin and nature of penal laws; proceeds to state which of them are to be entirely rejected, and which are to be preserved, with proper alterations.
Such is the writers plan', let us now follow him in the execution of it.
The five first books are all designed to pave the way for the sixth, which is the grand object of the work, fince it . contains the author's proposals for the reformation of penal
laws. We shall therefore only speak in general terms of the five firft books, that we may give a more particular account of the last.
The catalogue of virtues and vices, duties and crimes, as opposed to each other, seems very judịciously arranged, and we shall find many things in it that are put in a new light. Nor is the examination of the heinousness of each particular crime less instructive and useful. There is a spirit of virtue, integrity, and humanity, which manifests itself throughout the whole work ; a proper sympathy for those who are un. fortunate enough to offend against the laws of the state, or of fociety; and yet at the fame time the crimes and vices they are guilty of are brought to view, and exposed in their proper colours. The good man cannot fail to meet with powerful incentives to persevere in a virtuous line of conduct by the perusal of this book; and the man who may
be tempted to go aftray, will be aware of the snare, by having actions presented to his view as vices, which in the delusion of his mind, he might not perhaps have considered in so reprehensible a light. In the fourth book on the modes of preventing crimes, which the author judiciously observes, is much better than punishing them when they are committed; there are some new precautions added to those which have been already thought of by most legislatures for this purpose. He thinks for instance, that the best way of preventing the crime of embezzling the public money, is to shorten as much as possible the making up of the public accounts. He thinks that the receivers of the public revenue are allowed to keep the money in their hands for too long a time, which very circumstance, renders all the other precautions that have been taken against them useless.
The fifth book is entirely preparatory to the fixth, fince it treats of the difference there is between society at present, and when it was first instituted, with respect to what conftitutes the duties of a citizen, and of the difference which that must netessarily occasion in the penal laws.
The fixth book which we mean to analise, more particularly treats of the penal laws.
The first chapter speaks of the origin and necessity of penal laws.
The writer contends that penal laws, are, or ought to be, in exact proportion to the interest we have in the order or society established; but in the origin of society, these laws were haftily made, and only with a view to remedy the pre