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and the czar, or as Mr. Coxe writes it, Tzar Ivan Vaffilieyitch 11. of that prince's demand of the Lady Ann Haftîngs in marriage, and of other dispatches. From the Ruffian archives exhibited to his view and to his understanding by Mr. Muller, he was also enabled to describe the negotiation be. tween Peter the Great and the European courts relative to the title of emperor. As fome historians have asserted that Ivan Vaffilievitch II. carried his personal respect for Queen Elizabeth so far as to be one of her suitors, while Camden only relates that he proposed to marry Lady Ann Haftîngs, daughter of the Earl of Huntington, Mr. Coxe's curiolity led him to make inquiries into that transaction. The result of these was as follows.
• The first hint of this match seems to have been fuggefted by Dr. Robert Jacobs a phyfician, whom Elizabeth in 1581, at the tzar's desire, sent to Moscow. Dr. Jacob, not unacquainted with the fickleness of Ivan in his amours, and his defire' of contracting an alliance with a foreign princess, extolled, in the most extravagant terms, the beauty, accomplishments, and rank of lady Anne Hastings, and' actually inspired the tzar with a strong inclination to'espouse her, although he had just married his fifth wife Maria Feoderofra. Dr. Jacob represented this lady as a niece of the queen, and daughter of an independent princo; both which circumstances being falles sufficiently seem to prove that he acted from his own' suggestions without the least authority from Elizabeth. The tzar, fired by his description, dispatched Gregory Pirfemfkoi, a Russian nobleman of the first diftinction, to, England, to make a formal demand of the lady for his wife: according to his instructions, he was ordered, after a conference with the queen, to procure an interview with the lady, obtain her portrait, and inform himself of the rank and fituation of her family: he was then to request that an English embaffador might return with him to Moscow, with full powers to adjust the conditions of the marriage. If an objection fhould be raised, that Ivan was already married, he should anfwer, that the tzar, having espoused a subject, was at liberty to divorce her; and if it was asked, what provision should be made for the children by tady, Anne Hastingss lie Thould reply, that Feodor the eldest prince was undoubtedly heir to the throne, but that her fbildren lould be amply endowed,
Pirsemskoi, in confequence of these orders, repaired to Lon. don, had an audience of Elizabeth, saw lady Hastings, who had. just recovered from the small-pox, procured her portrait
, and returned to Moscow in 1583, accompanied with an English embassa, dor, Sir Jerome Bowes. The latter, who was a person of a capricious disposition, at his first interview greatly offended the tzar by his freedom of speech, and more particularly as he was not com. milloned to give a final affent to the marriage, but only to receive a more explicit offer, and transmit it to the
queen. The tzar, lite țle accustomed to brook delay, declared, "that no obstacle should prevent him from marrying some kinlwoman of her majesty's ;
thar that he thould send again into England to have some one of them " to wife; adding, that if her majelty would not, upon his next
embassy, fend hiin such an one as he desired, himself would “ then go into England, and carry his treasure with him, and marry “ one of thein there", Sir Jerome Bowes, probably in conformity with his instructions, threw every obstacle in the way of the marriage : instead of speaking handsomely of lady Hastings, mentioned her person with indiffcrence, and denied that she was any relation to the queen; adding, with some marks of contempt, that his miftress had many such nieces. By these' means the affair was sufpended, and the negotiation was finally terminated by the death of the tzar in the beginning of the following year'.
The restoration of Charles II. renewed the friendly harmony between the courts of London and Moscow, which had been interrupted during the civil wars, and the reign of Cromwell. And, as from this interval, the dispatches received from England were so numerous, that it would have required several days to have examined them with any degree of attention, Mr. Coxe tells us that he was " compelled to retire without having sufficiently satisfied his cựriosity:
On this declaration we shall make a remark which may serve as a general criticism on the travels under review.-Mr. Coxe, on the occasion alluded to, ought to have taken time. to gratify his curiosity. It was often at Moscow worse employed. What English reader can delight in minute details concerning the divisions or quarters at Moscow ? Kremlin; Khitaigorod, Bielgorod, or Semnailigorod? The nunnery of Viesnovitchkoi ; or genealogical tables of the sovereigns of Moscow either of the lines of Rurie or Romanoff? If he addresses these details to the Russians, they are not new: if to other nations, uninteresting. The patriarch Philaretes, and the patriarch Ninon may indeed have been very venerable men, but in England we are more interested in such characters as Dean Swift and Dr. Atterbury; characters lefs fa. cred, but more political.
It would carry us beyond our bounds to follow Me: Coxe into his various details of facts, many of which must appear insipid even to a Russian reader. His Inquiry into the history and adventures of the Czar who reigned under the name of Demetrius, and his reasonings concerning the question whether he was an impostor, take up no less than a whole sheet of his publication. He is still more voluminous in his inquiries into the history and conduct of the princess Sophia Alexiefna. Having left Moscow our traveller arrives at Iver which he describes in his usually tedious manner. It is worthy of observation, however, that Iver which was the first province of the Russian empire that was modelled according to her present majesty's new code of laws, has already experienced the beneficial effects of those regulations.
The rising spirit of commerce has added greatly within these few years to the wealth and population of the town (Iver). It contains at present at least 10,000 fouls : and the number of its inhabitants has increased in a very surprising degree.
Although the Travels under Review discover nothing of that fire, and sensibility, and sublimity of genius which so readily captivate the heart and extend the imagination in the writings of men of genius ; yet, faithful pictures of life and manners being at all times interesting, we shall extract for the entertainment of our readers the fola lowing particulars which fell under the observation of Mri Coxe in his routs from Moscow to Petersburgh.
• In this part of our journey (in the neighbourhood of Novogorod) we paffed by numberless herds of oxen, moving towards Petersburgh for the supply of that capital. Most of them had been brought from the Ukraine, the nearest part of which country is distant 800 miles from the metropolis. During this long progress the drivers feldom enter any house; they stop to feed their cattle upon the flips of paiture which lie on each side of the road; and they themselves have no other covering in bad weather but what is afforded by the foliage of the trees. In the evening the still filence of the country was awfully interrupted by the occafionallowing of the oxen, and the carols of the drivers, while the folitary gloom of the forest was enlivened by the glare of numerous fires, surrounded by different groupes of herdsman in various attitudes; some were fitting round the flame, fome employed in dressing their provifions, and others sleeping upon the bare ground. They relembled, in their dress and manners, a rainbling horde of Tartars.
• The route from Moscow to Petersburgh is continued during a space of 500 miles, almot in a straight line cut through the foreit, and is extremely tedious: on each fide the trees are cleared away to the breadth of forty or fifty paces; and the whole way lies chiefly through endless tracts of wood, only broken by villages, round which, to a small distance, the grounds are open and cultivated.
• The road is of an uniform breadth, and is formed in the fol. Jowing manner : trunks of trees are laid transversely in rows pas rellel to each other, and are bound down in the center, and at each extremity, by long poles or beams, fastened into the ground with wooden pegs ; these trunks are covered with layers of boughs, and the whole is strewed over with fand or earth. When the road is new, it is remarkably good ; but as the trunks decay or fink into the ground, and as the sand or earth is worn away or washed off by the rain, as is frequently the case for feveral miles together, it is broken into innumerable holes, and the jolting of the carriage over the bare timber can better be conceived than described. In many places the road may be considered as little else than a perpetual l'uccession of ridges ; and the motion of the carriage a continual concussion, and much greater than I ever experienced over the Toughest pavement. • The villages which occasionally line this route are extremely
fimilar to each other; "they usually consist of a single strect, with wooden cottages ; a tew only being distinguifhed by brick-houles, The cottages in thele parts are far superior to thofe we observed between Tolitzen and Moscow : they seemed, indeed, well fuited to a rigorous climate ; and although constructed in the rudeft and most artless manner, are very comfortable habitations. The site of eachi building is an oblong square, which surrounds an open area, and, being enclosed within an high wooden wall with a penthouse roof, looks on the outside like a large barn. In one angle of this enclofure stands the house fronting the treet of the village, with the staircase on the outside, and the door opening underneath the penthouse roof. It contains one, or at molt two rooms, one whereof is occupied by the whole family.
* I have frequently had occafion to obferve, that beds are by no means usual in this country ; iníomuch, that in all the cottages I entered in Ruflia, I only oblerved two, each of which con. tained two women at different ends with their cloths on. The family Nept generally upon the benchęs, on the ground, or over the stove ; occasionally men, women, and children, promiscuoufly, without any discrimination of sex or condition, and frequently almoit in a state of nature. In soine cottages I observed a kind of shelf; about fix or seven feet from the ground, carried from one end of the room to the other; to which were fastened several transverse planks, and upon these fone of the family slept with their heads and feet occahonally hanging down, and appearing to us, who were not accuttomed to such places of repote, as if they were upon the point of falling to the ground.
The number of persons thus crouded into a small space, and which sometimes amounted to twenty, added to the heat of the ftové, rendered the room intolerably warm, and produced a fuffocaring fmell, which nothing but use enabled us to support. This inconvenience was still more disagreeable in those cottages which were not provided with chimnies, when the smoke, being confined in the room, loaded the atmosphere with additional impurities. If we opened the lattices during the night, in order to relieve us from this oppression by the admission of fresh air, such an influx of cold wind rushed into the room, that we preferred the heat and effluvia to the keenners of these northern blats.
In the midst of every room hangs from the ceiling a vessel of holy water, and a lamp, which is lighted only on particular occasions. Every house is provided with a picture of some faint coarsely daubed upon wood, which frequently resembles more a Calmuc idols than the representation of a hanan head: to this the people pay the highest marks of veneration. All the members of the family the moment they rose in the morning, and before they retired to feep in the evening, never omitted standing before the saint ; they crossed themselves during several minutes upon the sides and on the forehead ; bowed very low, and sometimes even prostrated themselves on the ground. Every peasant alto, upon entering the room), always paid his obeisance to this object of worship before he addresfed himself to the family,
The peasants, in their common intercourse, are remarkably polite
to each other: they take off their cap at meeting ; bow ceremoni, bully and frequently, and usually exchange a falute. They accompany their ordinary discourse with much action and innumerable gestures, and are exceedingly servile in their exprellions of deference to their superiors: in accoiting a person of conlequence, they proftrate themielves, and even touch the ground with their heads. We were often itruck at receiving this kind of eastern homage, not only from beggars, but frequently from children, and occationally from some of the peasants themselves,
In the appearance of the common people, nothing surprised us more than the enormous thickness of their legs, which we at firkt conceived to be their real dimensions, until we were undeceived by the frequent exhibition of their bare feet, and by being admitted to their spilets without the least ceremony. The bulk which created our astonishment, proceeded from the valt quantity of coverings with which they swaddle their legs in suinmer, as well as in winter, Belide one or two pair of thick worsted stockings, they envelop their legs with wrappers of coarse flannel or cloth several feet in length, and over these they frequently. draw a pair of boots, fa large as to receive their bulky contents with the utinoit facility.
The pealants are well clothed, comfortably lodged, and seem to enjoy plenty of wholesome food. Their rye-bread, whofe blackpels at arft disgusts the eye, and whose fourness the taite of a deliçatę trayeller, agrees very well with the appetite ; as I became rem conciled to it from use, I found it at all times.nq unpleasant morfel, and, when seasoned with hunger, it was quite delicious: they ren: der this bread more palatable by Muffing it with onions and groats, carrots or greep corn, and seasoning it with sweet oil. The other articles of their food I have enumerated on a former occasion; in this place I thall only observe that mushrooms are so exceedingly common in these regions, as to form a very essential part of their provision. I feldom entered a cottage without seeing great abundance of them, and in passing through the markets, I was often astonished at the prodigious quantity exposed for fale: their variety was no lefs remarkable than their number; they were of many colours, among which I particularly noticed white, black, brown, yellow, green and pink. The common drink of the peafants is quals; a fermented liquor fomewhat like fweet-wort, made by pouring warm water on rye or barley-meal; and deemed an excellent antiscorbutick. They are extremely fond of whisky, a spirituous liquor distilled from malig which the poorest can occasionly cominand, and which their inclination often leads them to use to great excefs.
• The backwardness of the Ruffian peasants in all, the mechanical arts, when compared with those of the other nations of Europe, is visible to the inott fuperficial observer. As we approached indeed; towards Petersburgh, and nearer the civilized parts of Europe, we could not fail to remark, that the villagers were somewhat more furnished with the conveniencies of life, and somewhat further advanced in the knowledge of the necessary arts, than those who fell under our notice between Tolitzin and Moscow. The planks were lefs frequently hewn with the axe, and saw-pits, which we had long considered as objects of curiosity, oftener occurred; the cottages