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two months before it is completely finished. The parts tattooed are from within two inches of the knees up to about three inches above the umbilicus. There are certain patterns or forms of the tattoo, known by distinct names, and the individual may choose which he likes. On their brown skins the tattoo has a black
appearance: on the skin of an European a fine blue appearance. This operation causes that portion of the skin on which it is performed to remain permanently thicker. During the time that it is performed, but sometimes not for two or three months afterwards, swellings of the inguinal glands take place, and which almost always suppurate : sometimes they are opened with a shell before they point, which is considered the best treatment; at other times they are allowed to take their course.
Fo vaca, or canoe-building.–As it would be impossible to give an intelligible and accurate description of this ingenious and useful art without referring to well-executed plates, and as this has been already so ably done in Cook's and d'Entrecasteaux's voyages, we presume it would be but an unnecessary intrusion upon the attention of the reader to attempt entering into such a description. It may be here noticed,
however, that the Tonga people have obtained a considerable share of information in the art of building and rigging canoes from the natives of the Feejee islands. In all probability the communication between these two nations, at the distance of one hundred and twenty leagues, began on the part of the Tonga people, who being situated to windward, it is very likely that one or more of their canoes were formerly drifted to the Feejee Islands by stress of weather: and although they have no tradition of such a circumstance, yet the course of the winds tends strongly to corroborate the idea. It is highly probable that neither of them went out on a voyage of discovery; or if such an opinion be admitted, there is little doubt but that the people of Tonga first made the attempt, although the construction and rigging of their canoes were at that time far inferior. The grounds for this opinion are, first, their situation to windward; and secondly, their superior enterprizing spirit in affairs of navigation, which may be said to constitute a feature of their national character. Their superiority in this respect is so great, that no native of Feejee, as far as is known, ever ventured to Tonga, but in a canoe manned with Tonga people; nor ever ventured back to his own island but under the same guidance and protection.
The Feejee islanders make their canoes principally of a hard firm wood called fehi, which is not liable to become worm-eaten ; and as the Tonga islands do not produce this wood, the natives are not able to build canoes so large or so strong as those of their instructors : all their large canoes, therefore, are either purchased or taken by force from the natives of the Feejee islands. The natives of Tonga take the greatest pains with their canoes, polishing them withi pumice-stone, and paying every attention that they are not more exposed to the weather than is absolutely necessary.
The canoes of the Navigators’ Islands are similar to those which were formerly in use at Tonga, but the natives of those islands never venture to the latter place but in canoes manned with Tonga people.
Feoomoo, or the art of cooking.- If refinement in cookery is one proof of the civilization of a people, the natives of the South Seas have something to boast of in this respect. At least the people of Tonga can invite you to partake of at least forty or fifty different kinds of dishes, consisting in, or prepared from, one or more of the following articles, viz. pork, turtle, fowls of different kinds, fish, yams, bread-fruit, plantains, bananas, cocoa-nuts, talo and cabe (esculent roots', and mahoá, a preparation from a root of
the same name. We shall give a short account of the principal preparations of food.
Baked pork.–The animal is first stunned by a blow with a stick, and then killed by repeated blows on both sides of the neck. It is then rubbed over with the juicy substance of the banana tree, thrown for a few minutes on the fire, and when warm, scraped with muscle-shells or knives, and then washed. It is next laid on its back, when the cook cuts open the throat, and drawing forth the windpipe or gullet, passes a skewer between them, and ties a string tight round the latter, afterwards to be divided. He then cuts a circular piece from the belly, from four to six inches diameter, and draws forth the entrails, separating the attachments either by force or by the use of the bamboo. The diaphragm is then divided, and the gullet, windpipe, contents of the chest, stomach, and liver, are all drawn away together, along with the bowels. From these the liver is separated to be baked with the hog: the remainder is washed and cooked over hot embers, to be shared out and eaten in the meanwhile. The whole inside of the hog is now filled up with hot stones, each wrapped up in bread-fruit leaves, and all the apertures of the body are closed up quickly, also with leaves. It is then laid with the belly downwards, in a hole in the ground lined with
hot stones, à fire having been previously made there for that purpose; but prevented, however, from touching them by small branches of the bread-fruit tree. A few other branches are now laid across the back of the pig, and plenty of banana leaves strewed, or rather heaped over the whole, upon which, again, a mound of earth is raised, so that no steam apparently escapes. The liver is put by the side of the pig, and sometimes yams. By these means a good sized pig may be very well cooked in half an hour. A large hoġ is generally about half done in this way, then taken up, cut to pieces, and each piece being wrapped up separately in leaves, is cooked again in like manner. Yams, fowls, bread-fruit, and every thing that is baked, is dressed after this manner, the larger yams being cut into smaller pieces. They perforın the process of boiling in earthen pots of the manufacture of the Feejee Islands, or in iron vessels procured from ships, or in banana leaves: they also occasionally roast food upon hot embers.
Rope-making. There are two kinds of rope, one made of the husk of the cocoa-nut, which is the superior sort, and the other of the inner bark of the fow. Although these ropes are made entirely by hand, yet even those of considerable circumference are laid with the greatest