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hope of regaining the island of Bolotoo; in which endeavour if they succeeded, they were to come back and fetch their companions : but they looked in vain for the land of the gods, and were obliged to return sorely afflicted to Tonga.
MORALS OF THE PEOPLE OF TONGA.
The Tonga people do not believe in any future state of rewards and punishment; but they believe in that first of all religious tenets, that there is a power and intelligence superior to all that is human, which is able to control their actions, and which discovers all their most secret thoughts: and though they consider this power and intelligence to be inherent in a number of individual beings, the principle of belief is precisely the same; it is perhaps equally strong, and as practically useful, as if they considered it all concentrated in their chief god. They firmly believe that the gods approve of virtue and are displeased with vice; that every man has his tutelar deity, who will protect him as long as he conducts himself as he ought to do; but if he does not, will leave him to approaches of misfortune, disease, and death. And here we find some ground on which to establish a virtuous line of conduct : but this is not sufficient. There is implanted in the human breast a knowledge or sentiment, which
enables us sometimes, if not always, to distin: guish between the beauty of disinterestedness and the foul ugliness of what is low, sordid, and selfish : and the effect of this sentiment is one of the strongest marks of character in the natives of these islands. Many of the chiefs, on being asked by Mr. Mariner what motives they had for conducting themselves with propriety besides the fear of misfortunes in this life, replied, “ the agreeable and happy feelings which a man experiences within himself when he does any good action, or conducts himself nobly and generously, as a man ought to do:” and this question they answered as if they wondered that such a question should be asked. After this we cannot but suppose (unless we are led by prejudice) that the seeds of very great virtues are implanted in their breasts; and it would be very unreasonable to imagine, that there are not many of the natives in whom these seeds germinate, grow up, and flourish to a very great extent; and if so, they cannot but be universally approved of and admired. If we wish for an example of these sentiments, we have one in the character of the noble Tooleó Neuha, who lived as a great chief ought to do, and died like a good man. It is true he killed Toogoo Ahob; but a native would observe, that in doing it he 'freed Tonga from the dominion of an oppressive
and cruel tyrant. After that period he remained a faithful tributary chief to his brother, the king; and when he was told that his brother was concerned in plotting his assassination, and that it would be better for him always to go armed, his disinterested reply was, “that if his life was of no use to the king, he was ready to die, and that he would not arm himself against him, as long as the country was well governed." He afterwards associated with his secret enemies without arms, and when the first unkind blow was given, his only exclamation was addressed pathetically to his brother, thus : “Oh! Finow, am I to be killed ?” He said no more; but instinctively parrying off the blows with his arms till they were both broken, he received them on his head, and fell a prostrate victim to the malice of his enemies.
Mr. Mariner with four Indian warriors was flying from a large party of the enemy, when on a sudden he fell into a deep hole. His fate now seemed certain ; the enemy would have gloried in killing him, for they had not forgotten the guns: but his four faithful companions exclaimed, “ Let us stop for the Papalangi !" Three defended the ground with their clubs while one helped him out, and one of the three was killed in the act of defence. These four men might have run off without risking their lives,
but they were possessed of better sentiments : “ Let us stop for the Papalangi !” They did stop, and they saved him.
In such a kind of mind as we have been describing, we may readily suppose that the sentiments of veneration and respect are felt to a considerable degree; and, accordingly, every mark of such sentiments is shewn to the gods, to chiefs, and aged persons.
There is no necessity to dwell upon the respect that is universally paid to chiefs, for it forms the stable basis of their government, and of course cannot be allowed to be infringed upon. It is, in short, a superior sacred duty, the non-fulfilment of which, it is supposed, the gods would punish almost as severely as disrespect to themselves. The great veneration which they pay to aged persons is a very amiable trait in their character, and though it is now kept up by old habit and custom, it must no doubt have arisen in the beginning from notions which would do honour to the most civilized people ; for it is not only to those who are old, both in years and wisdom, that such respect is paid, but every aged man and aged woman enjoys the attention and services of the younger branches of society. Great love and respect for parents is another prominent mark of their character; and indeed it must be, so as it arises
out of a two-fold motive, i. e. they pay respect on the score of parentage and on that of superior chiefship or rank. Every chief also pays
the greatest respect towards his eldest sister, which respect he shews in an odd way, but it is according to custom, viz. by never entering into the house where she resides; but upon what exact principle, except custom, Mr. Mariner has not satisfactorily learned.
Finow Fejee, on the death of his brother, might easily have made himself king, for his party was exceedingly powerful, and heartly wished him to take the supreme command; but he was a man of too much honour to rob his nephew of his right.
If a man goes to another island, the chief of which during his visit makes war with all the island from which he comes, he is bound in honour to side with the chief on whose island he is: and this point of honour, except on extraordinary occasions, is faithfully kept Thus Finow Fejee was at Vavaoo when his brother the king waged war with that island, and honour binding him, he remained in the service of Toee Oomoo, directing his hostilities chiefly against Toobo Toa and those men who were the actual assassinators of Toobo Neuha. These different instances (and many others might be mentioned) are not only to a certain degree ho