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Prosocial Acts and Altruistic Motives
Genetic Origins of Altruism
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action activated affect altruistic appear asked associates attempted beliefs benefit caused Chapter characteristics circumstances communication competence concern confederate consequences considered cooperation cost created dependence desire determine develop discussed distress donate empathy equity evaluation evidence example exist expected experience experimenter expressed feelings females findings function give goals greater harm helping behavior human important increase indicate individuals influence intention interaction internal involved kind later lead less males measure moral motives nature negative norms noted observers one's orientation participants perceived performance person positive possible potential present presumably probably processes prosocial behavior psychological ratings reactions reason received reciprocity reduced relationship request responsibility result rewards scores sharing shocks showed significant significantly similar situation social specific Staub subjects substantially suffering suggested task tion usually values variation varied verbal victim