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The Climate of the Texas Trans-Pecos Region.
Dr. R. W. Knox, Houston, Tex., in New York Medical Record, vol. 55, no. 13. The Trans-Pecos region is bounded on the east by the Pecos river, on the north by New Mexico, on the west and south by the Rio Grande. Its area is 2300 square miles, about the size of West Virginia. Altitude from 2000 to 9000 feet. It is the only distinctly mountainous region in Texas. In the northern part of the region the mountains are very rugged and precipitous, and are intersected by deep watered canyons. The most marked climatic feature of the whole region is extreme dryness and absence of vegetation. El Paso, in the extreme northwestern part, is the largest town of the region. Situated in the center and in a more mountainous part of the Trans-Pecos region, is the town of Fort Davis. Fort Davis probably combines all the climatic advantages of this region. Altitude of El Paso is 3700 feet. That of Fort Davis is 5200 feet. The mean temperature of the seasons at Fort Davis is as follows: Spring, 64.3; summer, 74.3; autumn, 59.5; winter, 45.5, a very favorable average of temperature. The average annual wind velocity at Fort Davis is 5.9. This is less than the average velocity of most of the Rocky Mountain regions. Sandstorms are practically unknown at Fort Davis. The mean humidity of Fort Davis is 53. The annual rainfall is 20.36 inches. The mean annual difference between temperature and dew point, taken at 11 P.M., is 18.1. There is practically never any dew at Fort Davis.
Dr. Knox thinks the climate an excellent one for asthma, early phthisis, hypertrophic catarrh, bronchitis, debility from overwork and mental strain, and all classes needing a tonic and bracing atmosphere. As yet accommodations for invalids are meager.
The Origin of Tuberculosis in Children.
Dr. Leonard Guthrie (London Lancet, February 4, 1899) contests the position that tuberculosis in children is caused by milk. From the results of post-mortem examinations on children dying of tuberculosis at the Children's Hospital, Paddington Green, he draws the following conclusions:
1. Thoracic tuberculosis in children is more common than abdominal, in the proportion of three to two.
2. Tabes mesenterica as a cause of death in young children is practically unknown.
3. The preponderance of thoracic over abdominal tuberculosis is not necessarily and solely due to the direct entry of the bacilli into the air passages.
4. Primary infection through the alimentary tract does not prove that food has been the sole source of evil. Therefore tuberculosis in children is not likely to be materially checked by purification of milk supply alone.
5. The alleged increase of tubercular meningitis of late years is probably due to severe epidemics of measles.
Furthermore, he adds, children of the class to which hospital patients in England belong seldom get milk. They are invariably fed on condensed milk and cheap foods.
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"The evil that men do lives after them,
The good is often buried with their bones."
Years of constant, unremitting effort on the part of the medical profession of this State, headed by a few determined and tireless men, resulted about a year ago in the securing of a medical law, requiring all those who desired to practice medicine in the State of Tennessee, whether graduates or not, to appear before an examining board and there show evidence of their fitness to practice the art of medicine and surgery by passing an examination satisfactory to the eminent and capable physicians comprising the board. This law was just and proper, and only in keeping with the march of intellectual progress which marks this end of the century. That such restrictions thrown around the practice of medicine were necessary, is evidenced by the fact that the last decade has witnessed the rapid adoption of similar requirements, and even severer, by the legislative bodies of a large proportion of the States comprising the Union. In thus adopting an intel
lectual standard as a necessary qualification for the practice of the healing art, and thereby protecting their people from the meretricious quack, the pompous charlatan, and the ignorant pretender, as well as the incompetent graduate, the various States which adopted such laws were but following the example set for them long, long ago, by Great Britain, and almost every country in Europe. Tennessee, although slower than her sister States, finally, after years of persistence on the part of the medical profession, as we have stated, succeeded in securing legislation which had already, even though but a few months on the statute books, had a beneficial influence, and gave promise of much future good in elevating the standard of the medical profession of the State. But 'twas as ephemeral as a dream. The last General Assembly, in the face of the wishes of the medical profession of the State, despite the fact that the medical colleges of the State were opposed to such action, amended the law by passing a bill which exempted from this examination by the State Board, graduates of the medical colleges located in this State. And the bill, it seems, was lobbied through by from fifty to seventy-five medical students, who, no doubt, feared to face the board of physicians who were to pass upon their fitness to go out and practice the Esculapian art upon their fellow men. And some have argued, as was also done on the floor of the Senate when the bill was up for consideration, that a diploma from a medical college should be sufficient evidence of one's fitness to practice medicine. Alas! we indeed wish that it were true, but the securing of a diploma in medicine frequently, no matter how high the curriculum of the institution, becomes but a matter of time-serving and cribbing. Indeed, some of the most flagrant charlatans in the cities possess diplomas from medical schools in high standing. Tennessee, by thus amending this law, has retrograded instead of advancing in keeping with the demands of advanced civilization and with the progressive action of almost every other State, and the medical profession of the old Volunteer State is forced to hang its head in shame and chagrin at this puerile legislation of its lawmakers. But we must be up and doing and by hearty concert and united action, endeavor to have this wrong undone,
and a new law, better, stronger, and unassailable, take the place of the make-shift now imposed upon us. Each medical man in the State should interest himself in the cause, and two years hence, with a long pull, a strong pull, and a pull altogether, we'll again carry the day and raise Tennessee's fair head from out the muck and mire in which it is now buried. For the benefit of our readers we append detailed vote of the Senate on the bill, as taken from the Nashville American of April 5th: Ayes - Boyd, Butler, Chambers, Chambliss, Cole, Dismukes, Eldridge, Francisco, Gilmore, Hobbs, Meeks, Morgan, Padgett, Slack, Taylor, Thompson of Davidson, Thompson of Marshall, Tipton, Warfield, Whitson, Speaker Waddell. Noes - Bell, Buchanan, Graham, Hill, Reaves, Seay, Turner. Not voting-Caldwell, Eaton, Jarvis, Mann, Tuten.
THE MEMPHIS HOSPITAL MEDICAL COLLEGE.
Nineteenth Annual Commencement.
At the Auditorium, on the 27th of April, at 2:30 o'clock, P.M., the nineteenth and most successful session of the Memphis Hospital Medical College was brought to a close with appropriate exercises. The session of 1898-99 has been remarkable in the history of this College, there being an enrollment of five hundred and thirty-seven matriculants. The various prizes were as follows:
For the best average in Gynecology and Obstetrics, an obstetrical forceps, offered by Dr. Alfred Moore, assistant to the chair of obstetrics, won by Dr. Hugh Boyd, of Alabama.
For the best paper on Surgery, a case of surgical instruments, offered by Mr. L. W. Dutro, of Memphis, two students, Dr. W. B. Malone, of Memphis, and Dr. J. W. Beall, of Missouri, having presented papers of equal merit in competing for this prize, Mr. Dutro gave each of the young men a case of the coveted instruments.
For the best report on Surgical Clinics, a case of instruments, offered by the faculty of the College, won by Dr. W. P. Ball.
For the best report on Surgical Clinics of the Eye, Ear and Throat, an ophthalmoscope, offered by Prof. Sinclair, won by
Dr. Charles Morrow, who tied with Dr. J. J. Huddleston for the prize.
In the competition for the prize in Obstetrics and Gynecology, the following young men were honorably mentioned on account of the excellence of their papers: S. W. Glass, of Mississippi; W. P. Addison, of Louisiana; J. T. Bogard, Jr., of Arkansas; B. H. Dillon, of Louisiana; J. J. Huddleston, of Mississippi; Bruce Harkness, of Pennsylvania; T. E. Rhine, of Arkansas; William Waldrop, of Alabama; W. P. Watson, of Tennessee; A. T. Hill, of Mississippi.
An appointment as interne at Saint Joseph's Hospital was won in competition by Dr. Chas. Morrow, and similar appointments in the City Hospital by Drs. Hugh Boyd, W. P. Ball, W. P. Watson and W. D. Fountain.
We append a list of the graduates: