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symptoms threatened fuffocation, and bleeding with-held its accustomed aid; an emetic opened the gollet, and unloaded the lungs, so that deglutition became easy, and respiration free.
• But it is necessary to add, that a vomit only sufficiently strong to evacuate the contents of the stomach, is by no means adequate to these effects. The vomit must be powerful, and in ordinary cases repeated once in forty-eight hours. The patients never fail to express the relief they find after the operation, and the physician foon discovers it in the countenance and in the pulse. As to the formule of emetics the practitioner may vary it as he pleases; but I generally combine the tartar emeric with the ipe. cacuanha, that the purgative property of the one may be obviated by the nauseating quality of the other, at the same time that I wish to secure a certain violence of action upon the fyftem.
PURGING. I confider the action of purgatives as altogether repugnant to the curative indicacions in this disease. If the poison is received into the fyftem in the manner I fufpect; the operation of a purge, instead of discharging it, can only promote its diffusion along the alimentary canal--but waving that confideration, let us enquire what benefit can be expected from purgatives. Their most obvious operation is the empiyong of the guts, and thereby leślening the tension of the abdominal muscles. But we have sewn that the anxiety, the desility, the faintness, are in a great measure owing to the want of fullness in the larger bloodviftels; and a want of pressure upon them will produce the same effects. Hence the necessity of bandage when we haitily remove the water in an ascites through the whole course of the disease, the belly is in general very regular in its discharges; but if a purging spontaneously fupervenes, the patients fink so amazingly fait, that it is not within the reach of art to support them. Under these circumstances I have known a person so little indisposed as to dine below ftairs one day, and yet upon a a purging fupervening, to die before the next day noon. Sauvage after a vomit advises purges; but he adds that the patients very often diedi'
The treatise concludes with fix cases, which are distingly related, and afford strong proof of the author's judicious at. tention to the progress of this diseale, become peculiarly interelting, not only from its daily advancement over the circun. ambient counties, but from the dangerous disorders by which it is frequently succeeded.
The Practice of Navigation, on a New Plan: by means of a Que
drant of Difference of Latitude aud Departure ; and an easy and true Method of bringing Departure into Difference of Longitude, and vice versa, without the Use of a Variety of Nautical Tables, or any Knowledge in Trigonometry: the whole calculated to inftruit the most common Capacity in this useful Branch of Knowledge. By
James Rymer, S. R. N. 410..55. boards. Evans. MR.
R. James Rymer, S. R. N. (i. e. Schoolmaster in the
Royal Navy, we suppose) gives the following whimsical account of his work in the preface.
If this little treatise has any merit, the world will soon difcover it. If it has none, it might be uncharitable to treat it with contempt.
" I dedicate its utility to the young and ignorant; and folicit indulgence from men of science and genius. If I pretended to raise its value by depreciating books which contain syftems of mathematical navigation, I thould hold myself guilty of irreverence and disrespect to the memory of many great and worthy names.
• Indeed I should do wrong to recommend, much more to extol it, any further than it proved of utility to myself, when the scheme firit occurred to me. At that time, I had not the smallest fyftematical knowledge in navigation ; and often wondered at my own ignorarice, when I reflected upon the length of time I had been at sea. I had often heard them talk of difference of latitude and departure, allowance for lee-way, vatiation of the compass, heave of the sea, the action of tides and currents, without in the least comprehending what was meant. All of a sudden, one day, at sea, I was determined, by some means or other, to learn how to work 2 day's work, and keep a reckoning. I got a Daily Affiftant, a Mariner's Compass, a Robertson's Elements, &c. and applied myself diligently for about two hours--when my head began to ach, and my ideas became confused : I put away the books—yaun'd
— scratch’i my temples—went to bed -- rav’d-, and, the present work is the result of the dreams of that night. Whoever doubts what I affert, does me an injury: but, as I allow of an universal toleration of belief and sentiment in all trivial matters, I can readily forgive it.'
From this uncommon kind of a preface, we were far from being prejudiced in favour of this little tract; and on a perusal, had no reason to quit our first fufpicions of it. This new pian of Mr. James Ryıner, S. R. N. consists in a method of solving the cases of plain-failing by means of lines drawn on the faces of a quadrant, and in a method of turning
eparture into difference of longitude, with a view to the rolu
tion of the cases in Mercator's failing. Each leg or radius of th
e quadrant is divided into go equal parts, and from several of the points of division in each' radius, lines are drawn paraleel to the other radius on the face of the quadrant ; these lins serve to measure the difference of latitude and departure by tracing them to the numbers on the two radii. Between the same points of division, several concentric quadrantal arcs are drawn; and, by tracing these to the edge or radius, is to be found the distance of any point on the face of the quadrant from the center, which represents the distance failed in any case. The outer arch of the quadrant is also divided in go equal parts for degrees, and into 8 equal parts for rhumbs, to the principal of which radii are drawn from the center of the quadrant; and these lines represent the track of the ship on any course.-By means of all these lines then, it is evident that the cases in plain-failing may be solved by bare infpe&ion, to a tolerable degree of nèarness.
His method of changing departure into difference of longi. tude, is this: he finds the middle latitude, and, by a table, how many miles to a degree of longitude in that latitude; also, according to this proportion, how many degrees of longitude answer to the miles in the departure. This method of estimating the longitude, is too erroneous to be depended on in practice, and therefore can be of little or no ure. As to the method by the quadrant, for plain-sailing, it is not more expeditious, nor nearly so accurate, as a traverse-table; and therefore it can be of lit:le use in practice. We would not, however, omit to remark, that the inspection of this quadrant may be useful to give beginners, in an easy and familiar manner, a clear notion of the nature and cases of plainfailing.
A Vindication of some Pasages in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Chap
ters of the History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
By the Author. 8vo. 25. 6d. Cadell. MR. R. Gibbon, in the latter part of the first volume of his
Roman History, treating of the progress of Christianity, very properly observes, that its triumph over the established religions of the earth was owing to the convincing evidence of the doctrine itself, and to the ruling providence of its great Author. But immediately afterwards nie alligns five secondary causes for this astonishing event, derived from the paslions of the human heart, and the general circumstances of mankind, By this concellion some of the friends of Christianity conceived,
that he had invalidated the evidence of its divine origin, and placed it on the footing of those impostures, which have made their way in the world by human means, Others affirmed, tbat in his account of Christianity he had misrepresented several ancient writers, and had been guilty of many inaccuracies in his quotations. These charges have been brought against him in a variety of Answers, Apologies, and Examinations. .
Under these circumstances Mr. Gibbon paid a proper attention to the manœuvres of the adversary. • I sent, he says, for these publications ; for I have never affected, indeed I have never understood the stoical apathy, the proud contempt of criticism, which fome authors have publicly profeffed... Besides the strong and natural impulse of curiosity, I was prompted by the more laudable defire of applying to my own, and the public, benefit, the well-grounded cenfures of a learned adversary, and of correcting those faults, which the indulgence of vanity and friendship had suffered to escape without observation.'
One of his most violent antagonists on this occasion was Mr. Davis, the author of a tract, entitled An Examination of the 15th and 16th Chapters of the History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. This wriier accused Mr. Gibbon of perverting the ancients, and transcribing the moderns. These were serious imputations, affecting his credit as an historian, and his reputation as a scholar. In this publication he has therefore undertaken to vindicate his honour. The first article of impeachment, with the answer to it, is as follows:
“ The remarkable mode of quotation which Mr. Gibbon adopts muft immediately strike every one who turns to his notes. He sometimes only mentions the author, perhaps the book; and often leaves the reader the toil of finding out, or rather guessing at the paffage. The policy, however, is not without its design and use. By endeavouring to deprive us of the means of comparing him with the authorities he cites, be flattered himself, no doubt, that he might fafely have recourse to misrepresention.” Such is the style of Mr. Davis ; who, in an another place, mentions this mode of quotation as a good artifice to escape de, tection;" and applauds, with an agreeable irony, his own labours in turning over a few pages of the Theodosian Code.
• I shall not descend to animadvert on the rude and illiberal ftrain of this passage, and I will frankly own that my indignation is lost in astonishment. The fifteenth and fixteenth chapters of my hiltory are illustrated by three hundred and eighty-three notes ; and the nakedness of a few Notes, which are not accompanied by any quotation, is amply compensated by a much greater number, which contain two, three, or perhaps four dirtinct references ; so that upon the whole my stock of quotations which support and justify my facts cannot amount to less than eight hundred or a thouland. As I had often felt the incon. venience of the loose and general method of quoting which is so falsely imputed to me, I have carefully distinguished the books, the chapters, the sections, the pages of the authors to whom I referred, with a degree of accuracy and attention, which might claim some gratitude, as it has seldom been so regularly practised by any historical writers. And here I must confess some obligation to Mr. Davis, who, by taking my credit and his own on a circumitance so obvious and palpable, has given me so early an opportunity of submitting the merits of our cause, or at least of our characters, to the judgment of the public. Hereafter, when I am furn moned to defend myself against the imputation of misquoting the text, cr misreprefecting the sense of a Greek or Latin author, it will not be in my power to communicate the knowledge of the languages, or the poffeffion of the books, to those readers who may be defticute either of one or of the other, and the part which they are obliged to take between affertions equally strong and peremptory, may fonetimes be attended with doubt and hefiration. But in the prefent inItance, every reader who will give himself the trouble of confulting the first volume of my History, is a competent judge of the question. I exhort, I solicit him to run his eye down the columns of notes, and to count how many of the quotations are minute and particular, how few are vague and general. When he has fatis fied himself by this easy computation, there is a word which may naturally suggest itself; an epithet, which I should be sorry eitber to deserve or use ; the boldness of Mr. Davis's assertion, and the confidence of my appeal will tempt, nay, perhaps, will force him to apply that epithet to one or the other of the adverse parties.
• I have confested that a critical eye may discover fome loose and general references; but as they hear a very inconsiderable proportion to the whole mass, they cannot support, or even excufe a false and ungenerous accusation, which must refect difhonour either on the subject or on the author of it. If the ex. amples in which I have occasionally deviated from my ordinary practice were specified and examined, I am perfuaded that they might always be fairly attributed to some one of the following reasons. In some rare instances, which I have never tempted to conceal, I have been obliged to adopt quotations which were expressed with less accuracy than I could have wished. 2. I may have accidentally recollected the sense of a passage which I had formerly read, without being able to find the place, or even transcrive from memory the precise words. 3. The whole tract (as in a remarkable infiance of the second Apology of Justin Martyr) was fo More, that a more particular description was not required. 4. The fo:m of the composition fupplied the want of a local reference; the preceding mention of the year fixed the passage of the annalill, and the reader was