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Let us now proceed to the Minutes made since January, 1776.
• February 2, 1776. The experiments made the zyth of September last, on spring seeds sown in autumn, stand thus :
• The beans which were covered, have not received much injury; but those which were exposed are as black as coal, and some of them wholly destroyed-the roors quite dead.
• The oats.-The blades are much injured, but the roots seem perfect.
• The summer-tares which were obnoxious to the frost, are : greatly hurt; but do not seem entirely destroyed.
• But what fürprises me molt, the barley has stood the incle.' mency of the weather better than a fellow patch of wheat, experimentally fown the same day. I expected to have found it totally cut off; but I see no other vegetables whatever look so vigorously, winter-tares excepted; and those do not seem to have received the least injury.
6. The ketlock, which came up among the early-lown win. ter-tares, and which food above the snow, is cut down to the ground.
• Gates which swung clear before the frost, dragged during the froft ; but now again swing clear. A foot path across D. 2. made at random in the snow, is considerably higher than the rest of the field. It looks as if it had been raised by art, at le:st. an inch and a quarter higher than the adjoining turf. The snow being there trod off, the frolt was permitted to penetrate, deeper than here, where the coat of the snow prevented its peo" netration.
• Frost no doubt expands; I had a water-bottle rent to li. vers, and the water totally consolidated in one night. The sefarate pieces would not join by near half an inch.
• I apprehend the surface which was freely exposed, was raised near two inches. Sure this must be of service to a ftiff loil: for though it fall again, it perhaps does not onite fo clofely as it did before the expansion. Perhaps, its texture is fufficiently broken to admit the slender lacteal fibres. Perhaps frow preServes the present crop; and frost prepares for the future..
• Oxen. 26. To try the versatility of oxen, I keep the horses at plow, and do the odd jobs with those. I find them carry out? dung, bring hone hay, carry in straw, collect firewood, or ferch in turneps and cabbages with the docility of horses.
• Sifflation. 27. (see 29th of October, 1775) This evening the fame cow was blown again, by the fame aliment, cabbages, and was cured by the same remedy, salt and water.
• It seems fully proved, that salt and water will cure a sufflation ; but I wish to know how it operates.'
May we here offer a bint on this subject? Salt and water we are told will cure a fufflation. Might not this disorder be prevented by sprinkling falt on the cabbages or other green fodder. given to cattle? Should it not even answer this purpose, yet it
might have its uses: it is said to assist the fattening of both Theep and cattle ; and we know experimentally it is of considerable service to cows both in promoting milk, and improving the quality of it.
April 13, 1776. Yesterday began to land up Whip-reins, } N. 6. for barley, with four oxen fingle, and
Semiculture, J a team-plow. They did not make so neat work as I wished for. Put two of them to a whip-rein plow, double ;
but continued to drive them with the whale-bone whip. They carried off their work more chearfully and neater.
• Läst night I exercised them in the yard with whip-reins; and to-day they have landed up a full acre into five-bout beds, with out a driver.
o I had no idea of their mouths being so tender as they are ; and expected, thac it would have been necessary to guide them by the rings (this was indeed an idea I conceived betore I ever thought of a ring to tame them ;) but the bit is quite suficient. I am confident, without partiality, that we bave nor two horses so handy with whip-reins as the two oxen, We worked to day : and what is remarkable, they answer the whip-rein better than the whale-bone whip. • Rolling beans.
beans. 1 28. Perhaps, rolling the soil before the • Rolling peas. S beans come up is dangerous to the crop. If it be left unrolled, the clods become troublesome to the hoe, and by rolling on to the tender plants, are hurtful.
"I was afraid that the roller would have injured the heads of the plants, and therefore only run it twice across the field expesimentally – After remaining a day or two, I could not perceive the least harm from the operation ; but it was obviously a good preparative to hoeing: I therefore rolled the whole fielu They had just opened into broad leaf, which lay on the ground, and could not possibly receive any injury from the roller.
• To try the torture which infant beans can bear, I marked out three or four yards of one of the drills, indiscriminately, I first rubbed the plants between the fingers, till the leaves were perfectly bruised, and as black as ink ;-I then trampled them under foot, rubbing them hard with the soal of my shoe.
• This was laft Tuesday,-- just a week ago. At present, I cannot perceive that they have received the least real injury. The leaves, it is true, look rugged, as if eaten with flug or fly; but the items are as high and as healthy as those of the neighbouring plants.
• Therefore, beans, when their broad leaves lie flat on the ground, may be harrowed and rolled with safety.
• To prepare peale, too, for hoeing, 1 rolled them as they opened into broad leaf, and cannot perceive any evil attendant,
s dutumn-fown barley, July 21, 1776. Reaped it on Friday the 19th, but it was too ripe; it had itood three or four days too long. The crop was very even, and as good as could be expected from the quality and ftate of the soil.
• That which was exposed to the frost was obviously the best ; but I am at a loss how to account for this circumstance. Perhaps the roots of some large elms growing in the adjoining hedge, impoverished the foil; but this is mere conjecture : the conciguous cares are not the worse for them.
• ï do not see why barley should not be fown in autumn, and reaped in the vacation between hay.time and wheat-harvest.
• Cabbagese 21. Finished planting yesterday.
• The ground was so firmly (perhaps necessarily) consolidated by rolling, that it was laborious to make the holes with a hand. dibble; I therefore converted a potatoe-dibble into a cabbage foot dibble, which answered beyond expectation.
• To regulate the distance in the rows, untwisted a gardenline at every two feet, and inserted a feather of two or three inches long.
A line of 200 feet long was prepared in about ten minutes; and though it has been out wet and dry, not a fea. ther is displaced.
• To regulate the distance between the rows, fixed a line, with three feathers, cross each end of the five bout bed to be planted; bringing the middle feather exactly into the middle of the bed. An acre and ths took about 13,0co plants.'
This method of planting cabbages is imperfect. In the northern parts of the kingdom, where the culture of this vegetable is carried to great perfection, the process is this : the land being previously ploughed into two-bout çidges, one per
fon drops the plants two foot alunder on the crown of the ridge, another follows with a hand-dibble and plants them. In planting the first ridge the distance in the rows is regulated by a stick which the dropper carries in his hand. The plants on the succeeding ridges are dropped by the eye, the dropper placing them oppofite or at angles with those already planted, This work is usually performed by women or boys : it requires but little practice to be both expert and expeditious at it. Soon as the plants have taken root, the earth is ploughed from them, and the rows, if necessary, are hand-weeded : in a few days the earth is ploughed back again. This horsehoeing is generally repeated when the plants begin to cabbage.
These Minutes, which are carried down to July the 15th, 1777, contain much useful information, intermixed with many trifling incidents. But without those trifling incidents the book would not have been what the author intended it, a real Jeetob of private agriculture.
At the end of the Minutes the different articles are digested under their respective heads. Amongst other articles there is a very important one which few, if any, writers before have attended-to-- the bazard of farming. Those who are acquainted with farming in theory only form to themselves very imaginary picures of it. They suppose it to be a pleasurable avocation, accompanies with certain profit. This by no means is the care. Its profits are frequeotly uncertain ; and, as an avocation, we give full credit to our author when he asserts that it is laboriously serious. With respect to Mr. Marshall, as a far. mer, we should do him injustice not to remark that he is an attentive observer, intelligent and enterprising; and that he apparently relates facts with the most scrupulous regard to truth. Though, at the same time, it is to be regretted that his Minutes take not in a longer period than three years ; especially when it is considered that his farm, which seems at best but an indifferent soil, was totally impoverished by the Novenly management of the preceding tenant. In such circumstances every one, who is acquainted with the subject, must know several years will elaple before any conclusions materially decisive can be drawn from the course of management which either our author, or any one else, could have adopted. He would have done well therefore to have been thoroughly infructed in, what he calls, a science exceedingly abstruse, before he had attempted to instruct others. That he is a young farmer is evident from many parts of his book, independent of his own acknowlegement. He has certainly much to learn. And, indeed, after the following declaration, it is not to be wondered at, if in many points he still continue effentially ignorant. It is now upwards of seven years, says he, since the author studied any other book than the book, of Nature. Great as our veneration is for that primary source of all information, yet few people, we believe, are capable of Itudying it with much advantage, who depend solely on the light of their own minds for affistance. If our author thinks himself one of those privileged few, we are sorry to add he betrays a confidence which his present performance by no means seems to juflify. If all were to claim the same privilege that he does, and all are equally intitled to it, we might ask him where is the use of writing on a fubject, which to be matters of, we need only study the volume of nature?
As a writer, his meriis might have been passed over in silence; but as it is that part of his character, on which he deems principally to value himself, that he may not think we overlook him, he shall speak for himself : • The author, says he, declares himself at open war with custom ; excepting the custom founded in nature, or at least fupported by reafon : his ambition is to be stigmatized with innovator: nay, he would even risk his being thought an aukward meddler, rather than add, to the crowd of decent copyists.--He cannot suppress his disapprobation of those lifpers of Greek and Latin ;-thofę pompous displayers of learned trifles ; nor of those evanescent echoes of school philosophy, faint warbling through the grove of letters, to the injury of natural aud scientific knowlege, and the annoyance of English literature.'-In confequence of this open war with custom, to almost every idea, complex or simple, he gives a new term peculiar to himself; and to thew his disapprobation of those lispers of Greek and Latin (and who they are amongst good writers we know not) these terms seem purposely compounded contrary to all classical rule and analogy. What can be more to the annoyance of English literature than such terms as these ? Naturision, animalision, vegetision, aridage, verdage, animalising straw, bean quondal, pea-quoildal, wheat-quondal, &c. &c? And yet we are told thele are elaborately-raised technical terms, as necessary to a system of agriculture, as problem and corollary are to the mathematics ! How few people seem really to know themselves! Mr. Marshall, not contented to be, what, in spite of his absurdities, we cannot but think him, a man of plain sense and useful understanding, is perpetually labouring to be something
This attempt continually leads him into pert fingularities, or aukward affectations neither of which can be mil. taken, by any thing but ignorance, for what he is desirous they should pass for, bright parts or original genius.
Biograpbia Britannica : or, the Lives of the most eminent Persons
wbe bave flourished in Great Britain and Ireland, from the earlie Ages 10 the Present Times. The Second Edition, with Corrections, Enlargements, and the Addition of new Lives. By Andrew Kippis, D. D. and F. S. A. with the Arfance of other Gentlemen.
Vol. i. Folio. il, 115, 6d. boards. Batharst. WE
E have now before us a work of the greatest importance
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It is highly necessary, that every new edition of this valuable work should be carefully revised and improved, as a courle of years imperceptibly deltroys a variety of temporary publications, which ferve to throw a light on the lives and writings of eminent men.