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• It is, he says, to be observed, that the human form of "every man after death is beautiful in proportion to the love be
had for divine truths, and a life according to the fame; for by this standard things within receive their outward manifestation and form, so that the deeper grounded the affection for what is good, the more conformable it is to the divine order in heaven, and consequently the more beauty the face derives from its influx. Hence it is, that the angels of the third or inmost heaven, whose love is of the third or highest degree, are the most beautiful of all the angels ; whereas they whose love for divine things had been in a lower degree, or more external than that of the celestial or highest angels, poffefs an inferior degree of beauty; and the translucent luftre in their faces, as proceeding from a lefser degree of divine virtue within them, is comparatively dim : for as all perfection rises in degrees from the inward to the inmost, so the external beauty, to which it gives life and vigour, has its degrees in the same proportion. I have seen the faces of some angels belonging to the third heaven, of such exquisite lustre and beauty, as no painter on earth could describe, even to the thousandth part; though a 'consummate artist might be able to give us some near resem. blance of the faces of the lowest angels, or such as belong to the first heaven.'
On the other hand, the spirits of hell are deformed and hideous:
• All spirits in the hells, when seen in the light of heaven, appear in the several forms of their particular evils respectively, as so many types or portraits thereof; for in every one the interiour manifests itself in the exteriour, and exhibits the signatures of his particular distinction, so as to be visibly known to be what he is, by his face, by his spiritual body, his speech, and gestures. These forms in general, are such as express contempt of others, and threatening of those that refuse them homage ; fornis of hatred and revenge of various kinds ; forms of rage and cruelty, &c. But when such fpirits receive aduation, homage, or worship from others, their features foften into a few of self-complacency and secret satisfaction. It is no easy maiter to describe these forms under their various appearances, as no two are exally alike; only it must be observed, that among all that are in the same species of evil in any society, there is one common ground of fimilitude, or, as it may be called, of family likeness, however it may be diversified in the individuals. In general, their faces are hideous and ghaftly, like those of carcaffes, some black, fome resembling firebrands, and some deformed and ugly with warts, carbuncles, and running fores; many appear as having no face, but in the room of it something of a visage of hair or bone; and some only a kind of snout with prominent reeth ; their bodies also are monstrous; and their speech sounds as from anger, hatred, or revenge ; for, as every one speaks from his own false, so he sounds his voice from his own evil; in a word, they are all so many images of their particular and pro
The habitations of the spirits in hell are likewise horrible and dolefui.
• I was allowed to look into the hells, and take a view of their inside ; for the power of such inspection is, by divine permission, granted at times to the angels and spirits above them, even when they are not open: such an inside view of them I had. Some of the hells appeared like caverns in rocks, first proceeding far horizontally, and then descending either perpendicularly, or by windings, to a great depth. Some resenibled the dens of wild beaits in the woods; others the subterraneous works in mines, with different chambers and descents to still lower floors. Most of them are of thr:e degrees of descent, the uppermost dark, as corresponding to the falles of evil; the lowest of a fiery appearance, as corresponding to the evils themselves. In the lowest hells are those who acted immediately froin the root or principle of evil; but in such as are less deep, those who acted from evil errors, or the falses of evil. In some hells appear, as it were, ruins of houses and towns after some dreadful conflagration, in which the infernal spirits skulk; and in the milder hells are seen a kind of rude cottages, and in some places contiguous in the form of a city or large town, with streets and lanes, inhabited by infernal fpirits that live together in ftrife, hatred, quarrellings, and fightings even to blood, whilst in the streets and public ways are committed thefts and robberies ; and in some of the hells are places like public stews shocking to behold, as full of uncleanness and filth of all kinds. There are also gloomy, woods, in which the infernal spirits wander about like wil : beasts, and also subterraneous caves, into which such as are pursued by others fly for refuge. Moreover, there are barren and sandy desarts, ragged rocks with caverns, and scattered cottages; and to these desert places are consigned such in particular as had passed through severe fufferings in the other hells, and had been foremost among those who deceive others by crafty devices, and wicked stratagems. This is the lait itate of their appointment.
On the contrary, the habitations of the angels are exquisately delightful. Vol. XLVII. Jan. 1779.
• As often as I conversed with the angels face to face, it was in their habitations, which are like to our houses on earth, but far more beautiful and magnificent, having rooms, chambers, and apartments in great variety, as also spacious courts belonging to them together with gardens, parterres of flowers, fields, &c. Where the angels are forined into societies, they dwell in contiguous habitations, dispofed after the manner of our cities in streets, walks, and squares : I have had the privilege to walk through them, to examine all round about me, and to enter their houses ; and this, when I was fully awake, having my inward eyes opened.'
If this Treatise had been written as a theological romance, and presented to the public under tliat character, it would have appeared to more advantage : the reader would have made a proper allowance for the flights and extravagance of the author's imagination; and might have been pleased with some of his descriptions. But when it is imposed upon him under the idea of a serious relation of the wonders, which the author had seen in heaven and hell, it shocks his faith ; and though he may have the highest opinion of the fincerity of this ho. nourable senator, he will naturally conclude, that the conferences, which he held with angels, were only dreams, or reveries; and that his boasted illuminations from heaven, descended upon him through a crack in the brain.
Minutes of Agriculture, made on a Farm of 300 Acres, of various
Soils, near Croydon, Surry. To which is added a Digest wherein the Minutes are lyfiemized and amplified; and elucidated by Drawings of new Implements, a Farm Yard, &c. The whole being published as a Sketch of the actual Business of a Farm; as Hints to the inexperienced Agriculturist; as a Check to the present falle Spirit of Farming ; and as an Overture to Scientific Agriculture.
By Mr. Marshall. 4to. 125. boards. Dodfley. IT
hath been a complaint, not more general than just, that
of the numerous books on agriculture few have been the result of real experience and observation. On popular subjects There are never wanting those who are ready to obtrude their information upon the public, from whatever source that information may be drawn. Perhaps the art of book-making hath never been carried to greater extent than in the department of husbandry. It haih displayed itself in new modelling the antiquated works of a Worlidge or Mortimer, in translations from Meffts. De Chatevieux and Duhamel, who wrote for the information of people a century behind us in the knowlege of agriculture ; perhaps its next appearance is in the methodical form of a farmer's di&ionary, or in a voluminous display of decifive experiments on half a rood of land. It is no wonder that books which profess to teach an art their writers neither pra&ised or understood, should deservedly fall into contempt. It was matter of fingular satisfaction to find the author of the work before us pursuing a different road, confining himself entirely to the occurrences on his own farm. Speaking of himself and his motives for publication, he tells us, . He was born a farmer, bred to traffic, and returned to the plough a few months before the commencement of the following Minutes. He had long been convinced of the imbecility of books, and presently discovered the unfitness of bailiffs. He resolved therefore to be a farmer from his own experience: he endeavoured to fathom the theory and practice of every department. As useful truths occurred, he planted them, and raised the reflections which naturally came up. These facts and reflections being frequently the subjects of reference and perusal, he began to register his ideas in a manner more intelligible, not only to himself, but to his friends, to whom the register was ever open. The more numerous these Minutes grew, the more pleasure he took in increasing the number; the retrospea became more and more interesting, and he began to fancy them really important; his friends, too, praised or seemed to praise.' Having resolved to publish them, he adds, • The difficulty lay in the selection.--- The author was anxious to give a real likeness of farming ; but foresaw the tediousness which must attend on too minute a detail : he therefore determined to draw a middle line;
---to insert every minute, great or small, which was made during the first eighteen months, to give such only as seemed to convey some useful hint, or lead to something useful.'
That our readers may form a judgment what they are to expect from this performance, we shall give extracts from the Minutes of each period. The first series opens with the fol. lowing
• Servants. July 18, 1774. Yesterday discharged George Black-Why? Because I suipected him of smuggling ;-be. cause he was unequal to the management of the farm, and is too much a bailiff to be reduced to a bustler. He is hated by the men, and despised by the neighbours. He has good hands, buc a bad head-a crazy couch, dangerous to lull upon--a good implement of husbandry (spoilt by being made into a bailitt) but a bad husbandman.
• lam resolved to be, henceforth my own bailiff, and learn io. morrow's management from to-day's experience, and next year's process from this year's miscarriages.
• Haying. 26. Began carrying the hay of River Mead- got four loads into stack-caught in the rain with two more on the waggons-left four or five in the field, fit to be carried the lack and waggons abroad. In future I will accord to the adage, “ Carry hay while you may”-Some of it was fit yesterday ; but I was unwilling to break the day's work of a plow
27. The hay is not much worse for the Ateeping rain of laft night-and the sail cloth saved the dat stack surprisingly.
28. Carried all River Vead-got on briskly- Remember buftling necessary to haying.
Compofling. 31. Finished composting the border of LeyLands at 18 do a rod (of five yards and a half.) The men earned 35. a day each ; but they worked very hard. There was a load of dung laid on about every four yards and a half; so that digging up the flooring (this was a border which produced nothing but weeds and rubbish,) and making the mould into compost with che dung, (for the young clover of the same field) cost about 15d. a load of dung.
July, 1777. This is very expensive management, and its eligibility is itill a moot point with the writer.
Weedse Cutting thistles and fern on Norwood Common, (bordering on the inclosures) to prevent their feeds from being blown into the fields, and raise manure.-Drew them into the yard, green, and left them in heaps to ferment,
July, 1777. This management wants no recommendation.-It is obvioudy eligible.
• Working Cattle. 9. The men and boys are unanimous it their dislike of tbe oxen.- The buying them was unluckily premature.-Their keep has thus far been treble the value of their labour, and they must now lie a dead weight till after harvest, They have been the cause of more impertinence, vexation, and bickering, than all the other appendages of the farm.'
All criticism on these petty memorandums is precluded by what the writer observes in his preface, · The reader, says .he, who claims the smallest degree of candour, will peruse them as he would the private manuscripts in the closet of his friend; for he may be well assured, that nothing but a defire in the writer to give a real fetch of private agriculture, could have induced him to publish Hat which may appear, in the eyes of fome, too minute for publication. He expects, howevery that the reader will not determine separately on each Minute; but suspend his judgement until he has seen the feverat scattered rays converged in the digest; where, faint as they may separately seem, he hopes they may be found to throw more or less light on the object, or objects, to which they are conducted."