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The following note in K. Henry V. affords strong comparative proof of the importance of the ancient dialect, in ascertaining the sense of Shakspeare,

For I will fetch thy rym-] We should read :
• Or, I will fetch thy ransom out of thy throat. Warburton.

I know not what to do with rym. The measure gives reason to suppose that it stands for some monosyllable; and belides, ranfome is a word not likely to have been corrupted. Johnson.

This line wanting in the quartos 1600 and 1608. The folio reads : thy rymme. It appears, however, from fir Arthur Gorge's Translation of Lucan, 1614, that some part of the intestines was anciently called the rimme, Lucan. B. i:

6. The slender rimme too weake to part
« The boyling liver from the heart."

parvu/que fecat vitalia limes. L. 623. Parvus limes (lays one of the scholiafts) præcordia indicat ; membrana illa quæ cor et pulmones a jecore et liene dirimit.” I believe it is now called the diaphragm in human creatures, and the skirt or midriff in beasts; but fill in some places, the rim.

. Phil. Holland, in his translation of Pliny's Nat Hift, several times mentions the rim of the paunch. See B. XXVIII. ch. ix. p. 321, &c.' Stee-vens.

In the succeeding note, in the First Part of K. Henry VI. a historical inaccuracy is corrected.

- at the battle of Poidiers.] The battle of Poictiers was fought in the year 1357, the 31st of king Edward III. and the scene now lies in the 7th year of the reign of king Henry VI. viz, 1428. This blunder may be juftly imputed to the players or transcribers; nor can we very well juflity ourselves for permitting it to continue so long, as it was too glaring to have escaped an attentive reader. The action of which Shakespeare is now speaking, happened (according to Holinthed) « neere unto a village in Beauffe called Pa. taie,” which we should read, inhead of Poitiers." From this battell departed without anie Itroke stricken, Sir John Faftolfe, the fame yeere by nis valiantnesse elected into the order of the garter, But for doubt of misdealing at this brunt, the duke of Bedford tooke from him the image of St. George and his garter, &c." "Ho. linthed, Vol. II. p. 601. Steevens.

The next note we shall extract illustrates an allusion of the poet, in the Second Part of K. Henry VI.

What art thou, like the adier, waxen deaf?) This allusion which has been borrowed by many writers from the Proverbs of Solomon, and Pfal. Iviii. may receive an odd illustration from the following paffage in Gower de Confeffione Amantis, B. I. fol. x.

“ A serpent, which that afpidis
“ Is cleped, of his kinde hath this,
“ That he the stone noblest of all
" The whiche that men carbuncle call,
" Bereth in his beet above on bight;
" For whiche whan that a man by night
“ (The stone to wynne, and him to dante)
" With his carecte him wold enchante,
" Anone as he perceiveth that,
He leyth downe his one eare all flat

66 Unta

« Unto the grounde, and halt it fast :
And eke that other eare als faste :
He stoppeth with his taille so sore
" That he the wordes, laje nor more,
Of his enchantement ne hereth :
" And in this wise himself he skiereth,
“ So that he hath the wordes wayved,

“ And thus his eare is nought deceived.”
• Shakespeare has the same allusion in Troilus and Cressida :

“ Have ears more deaf than adders, to the voice of any true decision.” Steevens.'

In the Third Part of K. Henry VI. we meet with the folo lowing explanation of a wife of straw.

A wisp of siraw-] I suppose for an instrument of correction that might disgrace but not hurt her. Johnson.

• I believe that a wisp signified some instrument of correction used in the time of Shakespeare. The following inftance seems to favour the supposition. See A Woman never Vexed, a comedy by Rowley, 1632 :

“ Nay, worse ;-I'll stain thy ruff: nay, worse than that, "I'll do thus

[Holds up a zvijp - doft wisp me, thou tatterdemallion?" • Again, in Marston's Dutch Courtezan, 1604 :

“ Thou little more than a dwarf, and something less than a wo. man!

• Cris. A wispe! a wispe! a wispe!" • Barrett in his Alvearie, or Quadruple Dictionary, 1580, interprets the word wispe by peniculus or stovyos, which signify any thing to wipe or cleanse with ; a cook's linen apron, &c. Pewter is still fcoured by a wispe of straw, or hay. Perhaps, Edward means one of these wisps, as the denotement of a menial servant. Barret adds, that like a wase, it signifies " a wreath to be laied under the vessel that is borne upon the head, as women use.” If this be its true sense, the prince inay think that such a wise would better 'become the head of Margaret, than a croqun.

• It appears, however, from the following passage in Thomas Drant's translation of the seventh satire of Horace, 1567, that a wipe was the punishment of a scold :

“ So perfyte and exacte a scould that women mighte geve


“ Whose talling tongues had won a wijpe, &c.Sleevens.' An allusion to a custom in the time of our author, is illus trated by the fubsequent note in K. Richard III.

-Humphrey Houre, --] This may probably be an allufion to fome affair of gallantry of which the duchess had been suspected. I cannot find the name in Holinthed. Surely the poet's fondnes for a quibble has not induced him at once to personify and chriften that hour of the day which summon'd his mother to breakfast. • So, in The Wit of a Woman, 1592 : “ Gentlemen, time makes us brief: our old mistress, lloure is

at hand." • The common cant phrase of dining with duke Humphrey, I liave never yet heard satisfactorily explainedt. It appears, however, from a satirical pamphlet called the culs llorn-bocke, 16-9, written by VOL. XLVII. Marth, 1776.

T. Deckar,


T'. Deckar, that in the ancient church of St. Paul, one of the ailes was called Duke Humphrey's Walk; in which those who had no means of procuring a dinner, affected to loiter. Deckar concludes his fourth chapter thus : " By this, I imagine you have walked your bellyful, and thereupon being weary, or (which is rather, I beleeve) being molt gentleman-like, hungry, it is fit that as I brought you unto the duke,, so (because he followes the fashion of great men in keeping no house, and that therefore you must go seeke your dinner) suffer me to take you by the hand and leade you into an ordinary. The title of this chapter is, “ How a gallant thould behave himself in Powles Walkes."

• Hall, in the 7th Satire, B III. seems to confirm this interpretation :

66 'Tis Ruffio : Trow'st thou where he dind to-day?
" In fouth I saw him fit with duke Humfray :
" Manie good welcoms, and inuch gratis cheere,
“ Keepes he for everie ftragling cavaliere ;
An open house haunted with great resort,
Long service mixt with musicall disport, &c.

• Hall's Satires, Edit. 1602, p. 60. See likewife Foure Letters and certain Sonnets, by Gabriel Harvey, 1592:

“ --to seek his dinner in Poules with dake Humphrey: to licke dithes, to be a beggar."

Again, in the Return of the Knight of the Post, &c. by Nash, 1606 : “ -in the end comming into Poules, to behold the old duke and his guests, &c.”

• Again, in A wonderful, strange, and miraculous Prognostication, for this Year, &c. 1591, by Nath: “--lundry fellowes in their fiikes Mall be appointed to keepe duke Humphrye company in Poules, because they know not where to get their dinners abroad."

• If it be objected that duke Humphrey was buried at St. Albans, let it likewise be remember'd that cenotaphs were not uncommon.'

Steevens, The following are the remarks of three commentators on a paffage in K. Henry VIII.

That such a keecli--) Ketch, from the Italian caicchio, signifying a tub, barrel, or hogshead, Skinner. Pope.

. The word in the folio is keech, which not being understood, is changed into ketch.

• A keech is a solid lump or mass. A cake of wax or tallow formed in a mould is called yet in some places a keech. Johnson.

• There may, perhaps, be a singular propriety in this term of contempt. Wolley was the son of a butcher, and in the second part of King Henry IV. a butcher's wife is called-Goody Keech.

Steevens." In the succeeding note in Coriolanus, the ancient reading is reflored, in opposition to all the modern editors.

their provand) So the old copy, and lightly, though all the modern editors read provender. The following inttances may serve to establish the ancient reading. Thus, Stowe's Chronicle, edit. 3615, p. 737 : “ ---the provuurte was cut off, and every soldier had half a crowne a weeke.” Again : “ The horleinenne had foure killings the weeke luan, to find them and their horfe, which was


better than the provaunt.Again, in Sir Walter Raleigh's Works, 1751, Vol. II. p. 229. Again, in Hakevil on the Providence of God, p. 118, or Lib. II. c. vii. sect. 1 : “ ---- At the siege of Luxenburge, 1543, the weather was so cold, that the provant wine, oro dained for the army, being frozen, was divided with hatchets, &c.". Again, in Pasquil's Nightcap, &c. 1623 :

“ Sometimes seek change of pasture and provant,

" Because her commons be at home lo fcant." • The word appears to be derived from the French, provende, proa vender. Steevens.' The following expression in Julius Cæfar is thus illustrated.

-the elements
So mix'd in him, that Nature might stand up

And say to all the world, This was a man.] • So, in the Barons' Wars, by Drayton, Canto III:

He was a man (then boldly dare to say)
“ In whose rich foul the virtues well did suit ;
In whom so mix'd the elements all lay,
“ That none to one could sov'reignty impute ;
" As all did govern, so did all obey :
He of a temper was so absolute,

" As that it seem'd, when nature him began,

« She meant to thew all that might be in man. * This poem was published in the year 1598. The play of our author did not appear before 1623. Steevens.'

In Antofy and Cleopatra, the subsequent expression is also illustrated by collateral examples.

" That fucks the nurse afleep? ] Before the publication of this piece, The Tragedy of Cleopatra, by Daniel, 1599, had made its appearance; but Dryden is more indebted to it than Shakespeare. Daniel has the following lines :

“ Better than death death's office thou dischargest,

“ That with one gentle touch can free our breath;
« And in a pleasing sleep our foul enlargest,

Making ourselves not privy to our death.---
“ Therefore come thou, of wonders wonder chief,

" That open canst with such an easy key
“ The door of life; come gentle, cunning thief,

6. That from ourselves so steal it ourselves away.". Dryden fays on the fame occasion :

-Welcome thou kind deceiver !
6 Thou best of thieves ; who with an easy key
“ Doft open life, and, unperceiv'd by us,
“ Even steal us from ourselves : Discharging so
« Death's dreadful office better than himself,
." Touching our limbs so gently into flumber,
" That death stands by, deceiv'd by his own image,

" And thinks himself but sleep." Steevens.' An obscure passage in Timon of Athens' is thus elucidated by three commentators.

r.-----I myself would have no power.) If this be the true reading, the sense is, all Athenians are welcome to fare my fortune : I would

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myself have no exclusive right or power in this house. Perhaps we might read, I myself avill have no poor. I would have every Athenian consider himself as joint pollefior of my fortune. Johnson.

• I thould think, I myself would have no power, referred to the subsequent rather than to the preceding words....I claim no extraordinary power in right of my being mafier of the house: I wish not by my commands to impose filence on any cne: but though I myself do not enjoin you to filence, let my meat flop your mouth. Malone.

I understand Timon's meaning to he: I myself would have no power to make thee ilent, but I with thou would'It let my meat make thee filent. Timon, like a polite landlord, disclaims all power over the meanest or most troublesome of his guests. Tyrwhit.'

What follows concludes the observations on Titus Andro. nicus.

• It must prove a circumstance of consummate mortification to the living criticks on Shakespeare, as well as a disgrace on the memory of those who have cealed to comment and collate, when it fhall appear from the sentiments of one of their own fraternity (who cannot well be suspected of asinine tastlessness, or Gothic prepoffeffions) that we have been all mistaken as to the merits and the author of this play. It is scarce necessary to observe that the person exempted from these suspicions is Mr. Capell, who delivers his opinion concerning Titus Andronicus in the following words : “ To the editor's eye (i.e. his own) Shakespeare flands contefied : the third act in particular may be read with admiration even by the most delicate; who, if they are not without feelings, may chance to find themselves touch'd by it with such passions as tragedy should excite, that is----terror and pity.----It were injustice not to remark that the grand and pathetic circumstances in this third act, which we are told cannot fail to excite such vehement emotions, are as follows.--Titus lies down in the dirt.-Aaron chops off his hand. Saturninus sends him the head of his two sons and his own hand again, for a present.--His heroic brother Marcus kills a fly.

• mr: Capell may likewise claim the honour of having pro. duced the new argument which Dr. Farmer inentions in a preced. ing note. Malone

The conjeaure of the editor in the fubsequent note, on Troilus and Creilida, appears to be well founded.

A franger to those most imperial looks] And yet this was the seventh year of the war. Siaketpeare, who to wonderfully preserves character, usually confounds the customs of all nations, and probably fuppcled that the ancients (like the heroes of chivalry) fouglio with beavers to their lielmeis. So, in the fourth act of this play, Nettor fays to Hector :

But this thy countenance, fiill luck'd in jieel,

I never saw till now. Shakespeare might have adopted this error from the illuminators of manuscripts, who never seein to have entertained the least idea of habits, manners, or cuítuns inoie ancient than their own. There are books in the British Museum of the age of king Henry VI; and in there the heroes of ancient Greece are reprelented in the very dreffes worn at the time when the books received their decorations, Sleevers,'


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