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• The king determined to wait the English in a field which had Stirling on the left, and the brook of Bannock on the right. What he most dreaded was the strength and multitude of the . English cavalry. The banks of the brook were steep in many places, and the ground between it and Stirling was partly covered with wood. The place, therefore, was well adapted for oppoung and embarrafing the operations of horfemen. The king commanded many pits to be dug in every quarter where cavairy could have access. These pits were of a foot in breadth, and between two and three feer deep. Some slighe brushwood was laid over them, and they were carefully covered with fod, so as not to be perceptible by a raih and impetuous enemy. Barbour describes their construction in a lively manner : “ They might be likened, says he, to a honeycomb." This implies that there were many rows of them with narrow intervals.

• By this difpofition the king exposed his left flank to the garrison of Stirling ; but the inconsiderable number of soldiers in that garrison could not have greatly annoyed the Scots. Befides, Moubray the governor had consented to a truce, and, if he had assailed the Scots before the fate of the castle was determined by battle, he would have been deemed a false knight. In those days, the point of honour was the only tie which bound men; for dispensations and absolutions had effaced the reverence of oaths.

• Edward proceeded triumphantly on his march for the relief of Stirling caitle.

• On the 230 June, the alarm came to the Scottish camp, that Edward was approaching.

• The king of Scots resolved that his troops Mould fight on foot. He drew them up after this manner. He


the mand of the center to Douglas, and to Walter the young Stewart of Scotland; of the right wing to Edward Bruce, and of the left to Randolph; he himlelf took charge of the reserve, composed of the men of Argyle, the islanders, and his own vassals of Carrick. In a valley to the rear, he placed the baggage of the army, and all the numerous and useless attendants on the camp

• He enjoined Randolph to be vigilant in preventing any advanced parties of the English from throwing fuccours into the castle of Stirling.

• Eight hundred horsemen, commanded by fir Robert Clifford, were detached from the English army; they made a circuit by the low grounds to the east, and approached the castle. The king perceived their motions, and coming up to Randolph, angrily exclaimed, “ Thoughtless man! you have suffered the enemy to pass." Randolph hafted to repair his fault, or perish. As he advanced, the English cavalry wheeled to attack him. Randolph drew up his iroops in a circular form, with their Spears refiing on the ground, and protended on every fide. At the first onset fir William Daynecourt, an English commander



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of diftinguished valour, was flain. The enemy, far superior in numbers to Randolph, environed him, and pressed had on his little band. Douglas saw his jeopardy, and requelted the king's permission to go and fuccour him. . You shall not move from your ground, cried the king; let Randolph extricate himfelf as

I will not alter my order of battle, and lose the advantage of my position.” “' In truth, replied Douglas, I cannot stay by and fee Randolph perish ; and therefore, with your leave, I must aid him.” The king, unwillingly, consented; and Douglas flew to the asistance of his friend. proaching, he perceived that the English were falling into dir. order, and that the perseverance of Randolph had prevailed over their impetuous courage.

“ Halt, cried Douglas, those brave men have repulsed the enemy ; let us not diminish their glory, by sharing it.”

• Meanwhile the vanguard of the English army appeared. The king of Scots was then in the front of the line, meanly mounted, having a battle-ax in his hand, and a crown above his helmet, as was the manner in those times. Henry de Bohun, an Englila knight, armed at all points, rode forward to encounter him. The king met him in single combat; and, with his battle-ax, cleft the scull of Bohun, and laid him dead at his feet. The English vanguard retreated in confusion.

• Monday the 24th of June 1314, at break of day, the English army moved on to the attack.

• The van, consisting of the archers and lancemen, was commanded by Gilbert de Clare, earl of Glouceiter, nephew of the English king, and Humphry de Bohun, earl of Hereford, conItable of England.

The ground was so narrow, that the rest of the English army had not space suficient to extend itself. It appeared to the Scois as composing one great compact body:

• Edward, in perlun, brought up the main body. Aymer de Vallence, earl of Pembroke, and fir Giles d'Argentine, iwo experienced commanders, attended him.

• Maurice Abbot of Inchaffray, placing himself on an eminence, celebrated mass in sight of the Scottish army. He then paffed along the front, barefooted, and bearing a crucifix in his hands, and exhorted the Scots in few and forcible words, to combat for their rights and their liberty. The Scots kneeled down. " They yield, cried Edward ; see, they implore mercy."

They do, answered Ingelram de Umfraville, but not ours. On that field they will be victorious, or die.

• The two armies, exasperated by mutual animofities, engaged. The confict was long and bloody. The king of Scots, perceiving that his troops were grievoudly annoyed by the Eng. lish archers, ordered fir Robert Keith, the marshall, with a few armed horsemen, to make a circuit by the right, and attack the archers in flank. The archers having no weapons, were instantly overthrown, and falling back, Spread disorder through

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army. The king of Scots advanced with the reserve. The young and gallant earl of Gloucefter attempted to rally the fugitives, but was un horsed, and hewen to pieces- the confufion became universal. At that moment the numerous attend. anas on the Scottish camp, prompted by curiosity, or eager for plunder, issued from their retirement in the rear. It seemed as if fresh troops had arrived in aid of the Scors, The English Aed with precipitation on every fide. Many crowded to seek relief among the rocks in the neighbourhood of Stirling castle ; and many rushed into the river and were drowned.

• Pembroke and fir Giles d'Argentine had attended on Edward during the action. When Pembroke saw that the battle was irretrievably loft, te constrained Edward to quit the field. “It is not my wont to fly, faid d'Argentine, renowned for his prowess in the Saracen wars; then spurring on his horse, and crying out, An Argentine,” he rushed into the battle and met death

Douglas, with fixty horsemen, pursued the English king on the spur. At the Torwood he met fir Laurence Abernethy, who was bafting with twenty horiemen to the English rendezvous. Abernethy abandoned the cause of the vanquished, and joined with Douglas in the pursuit. Edward, rode on without halling to Linlithgow. Scarcely had he refreihed himself there, when the alarm came that the Scots were approaching. Edward again fied. Douglas and Abernethy pressed hard upon him, and allowed him not a moment of respite. Edward at length reached Dunbar, a place distant more than fixty miles from the field of battle. The earl of March opened the gates of that castle to Edward, protected him from his pursuers, and conveyed him by fea into England,

• Such was the event of the battle of Bannockburn; an action glorious in its circumstances, and of decisive moment.

« On the side of the Scots, no persons of note were flain, excepe fir William Vipont, and the favourite of Edward Bruce, Sir Walter Ross,

• When Edward Bruce heard of his death, he pasionately exclaimed, “ Oh that this day's work were undone, so Ross had not died.

• But the loss of the English was exceedingly great.' Of basons and bannerets, there were fain twenty-seven, and twentytwo made prisoners. Of knights there were sain forty-two, and fixty made prisoners. The English historians mention as the inoit distinguished among the flain, the earl of Gloucester, for Giles d'Argentine, Robert Clifford, Payen Tybetot, William le Maiefhal, and the Senehal of England Edmund de Mauley. Of equires there fell seven hunared; the number of common men killed or made prisoners is not related with any certainty.

• The Welthmen who served in the English army were scattered over the country, and miserably butchered by the Scottish peasants.


· The English who had fought refuge among the rocks in the neighbourhood. of Stirling castle, surrendered at discretion, Moubray the governor performed the conditions of his capitulation, yielded up the calle, and entered into the service of the king ot Scots.

• The privy-seal of the English king fell into the hands of the enemy.'

Obstinate as was at this time the war between the two nations, it was terminated by a pacification which, however unexpected, is not unusual in the viciffitude of human things. It was stipulated in one of the articles of the treaty, that Johanna sister to Edward the Third, then king of England, Thould be given in marriage to David, the son and heir of the king of Scots. Speaking of this treaty, the chief articles of which are specified by our author, he makes the following ju. dicious remarks.

• The English historians, indeed, term the peace of Northampton ignominious, and the marriage of the princess Johanna, that base marriage; because, on that occasion, Edward III. renounced a claim of fuperiority which the bloody and ruinous wars of full twenty years had in vain attempted to establish.

• They who centure pacific measures, are generally persons exempted by their condition from the toils and dangers, and intolerable expence of war. No peace is ever adequate to the fanguine expectations of the vulgar : and, through some strange fatality, the expectations of the vulgar are no less fanguine after a long series of disasters, than after the moft signal and uninterrupted success.

• There were many causes which concurred to render the peace of Northampton necessary, England, at that period, was miserably divided by factions, under the dominion of a youth of fixteen, and, through the prodigality of the former reign, so impoverished, as hardly to be capable of paying for the feeble aid obtained from foreign mercenaries. There were nó able and experienced commanders to oppose against Brace, Randolph, and Douglas : and, however harsh it may now found, it is acknowledged by the ancient English historians, that, in the course of a twenty years war, the fpirit of Scotland had attained an astonishing ascendant over the English.

That motives of private inte rest, also, induced queen Isabella and Mortimer to precipitate a peace with Scotland, will not be denied. All the misfortunes which might have ensued in the prosecution of the war, would have been ascribed to the errors of their administration, while Edward alone would have reaped the glory of any fuccessful enterprise : and, indeed, a young king, if bred up in camps, and constantly surrounded by his barons, could not have been long detained in a state of tutelage favourable to the ambition of labella and Mortimer.

• Fortunate it is for a nation when the selfith views of its rue lers chance to coincide wirh the public intereft.

• In consequence of the treaty of Northampton, David, prince of Scotland, married Johanna, the daughter of Edward II. [at Berwick, 12th July.']

In the course of the narrative fir David Dalrymple detects a misrepresentation in Crawfurd's Peerage, respecting a daughter of Robert Bruce, named Matildis, who was n arried to an esquire, one Thomas Trauc. The words of Fordun, who men. tions the alliance, are, ' Quæ nupsit cuidam armigero, no. mine Thomae Isaac.' Crawfurd, speaking of this lady, talsely cites the authority of Fordun in the following manner :• Quæ ex Thoma de 1 jack habuit filiam.' His intention, fir David obferves, was to conceal the mean marriage of the daughter of Brace, and therefore he fupprefled the words quidam armiger, (a certain esquire,] and he changed the name of Thomas Isaac into Thomas de Ylack, which has the appearance of a more dignified appellation, affumed from lands.

We should do injustice to the elaborate researches of fir David Dalrymple, did we not give a place to his animadverfions on a passage in Mr. Hunie's Hiltory, re pecting the are fertion, that the estates of lord Wake, and Henry de Beaumont, had been bestowed on the followers of Robert Bruce, and could not, without difficulty, be wrelted from them.

“ It had been ftipulated in this treaty, says Mr. Hume, that both the Scottish nobility, who, before the commencement of the wars, enjoyed lands in England, and the English who inhesited estates in Scotland, should be restored to their several porfeflions; Rymer, v. 4. p. 384. But though this article had been executed pretty regularly on the part of Edward, Robert, who saw the estates claimed by Englishmen much more numerous and valuable than the other, either esteemed it dangerous to admit so many secret enemies into the kingdom, or found it difficult to wrell from bis own followers the polillions b flowed on tbim as the reward of their fatigues and dangers; and he had protracted the performance of his part of the stipulation,” &c. Errors are crowded into this short paragraph. 1. There was no article in the treaty of Northampton concerning a general and reciprocal reftitution. See Annals, p. 127, &c. There is no evidence that Robert Bruce protracted the performance of the treaty on his part, or that Edward III. ever complained of his delays. It is Itrange that Mr. Hume should have quoted Foedera, T. iv, p. 384, and yet have said, that Robert Bruce protračied the perjormance on bis part, while the article bad been pretty regularly execured on i be part of Edward III. for the instruments quoted from Foedera, however much it may have been misunderstood in other particulars, certainly proves that Edward Ill. made a grant to


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