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ΝΟΜΕΥΣ, Ἢ ΒΟΥΚΟΛΟΙ,
ΔΑΦΝΙΣ ΚΑΙ ΜΕΝΑΛΚΑΣ,
Βωκολιάσδεο, Δάφνι· τὸ δ ̓ ῳδᾶς ἄρχεο πρᾶτος,
̔Αδὺ μὲν ἁ μόσχος γαρύεται, ἁδὺ δὲ χὰ βῶς,
ΝΟΜΕΎΣ. THE SHEPHERD, or THE HERDSMEN. Daphnis and Menalcas are persuaded by a certain shepherd to try their skill in bucolic song. They sing but one strain each, and each receives a prize. The shepherd presents Daphnis with a beautiful club of exquisite shape, and Menalcas with a finely wreathed conch.
1. Τὺ δ ̓ ᾠδᾶς ἄρχεο. Virgil, Ecl. iv. 10. " Incipe, Mopse, prior.” Ecl. iii. 58. “ Incipe, Damoetas, tu deinde sequere, Menalca." 3. Ὑφέντες. Ὑφιέναι properly signifies to let under, as a suckling animal under its dam. Comp. iv. 4. In the next clause all the MSS. have ὑπὸ στείραισι, i. e. ὑφέντες στείραισι. Ὑφιέναι, however, will not convey the meaning intended
here, without a transposition of cases ; as, ὑφιέναι στείρας ταύροις. Thus Longus, Past, iii. 21. Ὑποβάλλειν τὰς αἶγας τοῖς τράγοις. The Scholiast says ὑπὸ is put for ἐπί. Reiske, Warton, and Schæfer read ἐπί, 4. Apa. Doric for aua. Comp. x. 39.- Βύσκοιντο. Heinsius supplies εἶθε, -- 5. Μηδὲν ἀτιμαγελεῦντες. Not at all waitdering from the herd. ̓Ατιμαγελεῖν, ὡς its derivation shows, properly signifies to despise the herd. Comp. Aristct. Hist. Anim. vi. 18. ix. 3. - 6. Ἔμπροθεν. A poetical form for ἔμπροσθεν. ̓́Αλλοθε δ ̓ αὖθις, Then in turn.
7. ̔Αδὺ μέν, Comp. viii. 77. ̔Αδὺ δὲ χἃ σύριγξ. Comp. viii. 78. seqq. Virgil, Ecl. iii. 82.
9. Ἐν δὲ νένασται, And in it are
Λευκᾶν ἐκ δαμαλᾶν καλὰ δέρματα, τάς μοι ἁπάσας 10
Αἴτνα μᾶτερ ἐμὰ, κἠγὼ καλὸν ἄντρον ἐνοικέω
12. Τῷ δὲ θέρευs. Comp. vss. 19, 20. - 13. Ερῶντε. “ Puer et puella.” Τoup. Winterton reads ἐρῶν τι, making τὶ the object of ἀκούειν, i. e. something admonitory. Kiessling conjectured ἐρῶν γε.
14. Οὕτω Δάφνις. Virgil, Ecl. vii. Hos Corydon, illos referebat in ordine Thyrsis.”.
15. Αἴτνα μᾶτερ. Μᾶτερ here is a nominative. Menalcas calls Etna his mother, because it was the place of his birth. Thus Ida is called μητέρα θηρῶν in Homer, 11. Θ. 47.--16. Κοίλαις ἐν πέτραισιν. Polyphemus gives a ,similar description of his cave in Ovid, .Alet. xiii. 810. “ Sunt mihi pars montis vivo pendentia saxo Antra." 18. Ων μοι πρὸς κεφαλᾷ, Imitated from Euri
pides, Cyel. vs. 328. Ὅταν δὲ βορέας χιόνα Θρηΐκιος χέῃ, Δοραῖσι θηρῶν σῶμα περιβαλὼν ἐμὸν, Καὶ πῦρ ̓ ἀναί θων, χιόνος οὐδέν μοι μέλει. 19. 'Ev πυρὶ δέ. Virgil, Ecl. vii. 49. “ Hic focus, et tædæ pingues: hic plurimus ignis Semper, et assidua postes fuligine nigri: Hic tantum Boreæ curamus frigora, quantum Aut numerum lupus, aut torrentia flumina ripas." - Ἐν πυρὶ δ ̓ αὖαι, Supply εἰσίν. The Latin translations explain χορία by "exta," entrails. Comp. x. 11. According to Hesychius it signifies a preparation of milk and honey.--20. Χειμαίνοντος. When the storm rages. See Duker on Thuc. viii. 6. and Matth. Gr. Gr. § 563. Grammarians usually supply χρόνου. See Schæfer on Bos, Ellips. p.549. - Οὐδ ̓ ὅσον. This is equivalent to the Latin “ ne tantillum quidem : ”And I have as little care for winter as a toothless man, &c. The Scholiast says: Οὐκ ἔχω δὲ μικρὰν φροντίδα χειμῶνος, ὥσπερ οὐδὲ νωδὸς ἀνὴρ καρύων, &c. For ἢ, Τoup conjectured fv, Casaubon and others ᾖ, “ quemadmodum.” -21. ̓Αμύλοιο. ̓́Αμυλος was a soft cake made of four, not prepared by a mill,
Τοῖς μὲν ἐπεπλατάγησα, καὶ αὐτίκα δῶρον ἔδωκα,
Πέντε ταμὼν πέντ ̓ οὖσιν· ὁ δ ̓ ἐγκαναχήσατο κόχλῳ.
23. Κορύναν. Comp. vii. 19. 43. 24. Αὐτοφυᾶ. That is, shaped by nature, as being an entire plant. Warton and Harles extol with much praise the elegant simplicity in the description of these gifts. - 25. Στρόμβω. Στρόμβος properly signifies any body twisted round, or turned round, as a top ; here it signifies a conch, such as was formerly used as a trumpet: the “ Murex Tritonis” of Linnæus. - 26. Πέτραισιν ἐν Ικαρίαισι. On the Icarian rocks, i. e. on the rocky shore of the island Icaria, now Nicaria, one of the Sporades in the Agean sea. The Scholiast says: ἐν ταῖς πέτραις τοῦ Ικαρίου πελάγους. - Δοκεύσας. Δοκεύειν signifies to lie in wait for; here to surprise, take by surprise. — 27. Πέντε ταμών. Ι. e, εἰς πέντε μέρη ταμὼν ἀνθρώποις πέντε οὖσιν. See Schæfer on Bos, Ellips. p. 683. -- Ὁ δέ. Menalcas. He was so delighted with the gift, that he immediately sounded it, as he would a trumpet. The author's meaning is misrepresented by Fawkes.
28. Βωκολικαὶ Μῶσαι. All hail, bucolic Muses! An usual mode of in
vocation. Virgil, Ecl. vii. 21. “ Nymphæ, noster amor, Livethrides, aut mihi carmen, Quale meo Codro, con
cedite.” Comp. Callimachus, H. Cer. vs. 135. "The shepherd having praised and rewarded Daphnis and Menalcas for their singing, was desirous of letting them hear how he could sing himself: he therefore requests the Muses to bring to his memory the song he chanted to the four shepherds, who partook of the fish with him. This song begins at vs. 31. and ends with the Idyl." Edwards. Some give the remainder of the Idyl to Menaleas. 29. Τάν ποκ ̓ ἐγώ. Comp. i. 24. ii. 45. Meineke would prefer τὰν τόκ ̓ ἐγώ.
30. Μηκέτι. Never, as in Pindar, Olymp. i. 7. This verse is supposed not to belong to this place. It alludes to a superstitious opinion of the ancients, that a falsehood was sometimes followed by some such punishment, as a
blister on the tip of the tongue, or a pimple on the nose, &c. Vossius, who, for φύσῃς, reads φύσῃ, sc. ἡ ᾠδὴ, interprets it thus : Lest hereafter the song, as being badly repeated, should produce a pustule on the tip of my tongue. He adds, that superstition assigned this punishment for an unskilful recitation of verses,
31. Τέττιξ μὲν τέττιγι. . Thus Gregory Nazianzen: Πῶλοι μὲν πώλοισι φίλοι, ἔλαφοί τ ̓ ἐλάφοισι, Καὶ ψῆρες ψήρεσσιν, ἁγνῷ δέ τε τίμιος ἁγνός.
Ἵρηκες δ ̓ ἵρηξιν· ἐμὶν δ ̓ ἃ Μῶσα καὶ ᾠδά.
Comp. Juvenal, xv. 159.-32. 'Eulv δ ̓ ἁ Μῶσα. Comp. Virgil, Georg. ii.
33. Tâs μοι πᾶς. "Quo carmine mihi tota sit plena domus” Portus. "Hac (Musa) mihi," &c. Kiessling. Τἂν in place of τᾶς would have obviated the ambiguity. -- Οὔτε γὰρ ὕπνος.
Virgil, Ecl. v. 46. “ Tale tuum carmen nobis, divine poëta, Quale sopor fessis in gramine, quale per æstum Dulcis aquæ saliente sitim restinguere rivo.” Thus also Pope, Past. iii. 48. “ Not bubbling fountains,” &c. - 36. Δαλήσατο. Δηλεῖσθαι sonetimes signifiesto injure by philters. Comp. xv. 48.
'EPTATI'NAI, *H OEPIΣTAI'.
ΜΙΛΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΒΑΤΤΟΣ,
Ἐργατίνα βουκαῖε, τί νῦν, ᾧ ̓ζυρὲ, πεπόνθης ; Οὔτε τὸν ὄγμον ἄγειν ὀρθὸν δύνᾳ, ὡς τοπρὶν ἆγες·
THE LABOURERS, or THE REAPERS. This Idyl commences with a dialogue between two reapers, Milo and Battus. The latter is so captivated with the love of a music-girl, named Bombyce, that he is unable to perform his work as he ought, and to keep pace with his fellow labourers. Being interrogated by Milo, he declares his love, and sings the praises of his mistress. Milo compliments him, in a jeering manner, on his singing, and in his turn repeats the Song of Lytierses.
1. Ἐργατίνα βουκαῖε. Rustic labourer, Boukaios is properly applied to one who follows a yoke of oxen; one who ploughs with oxen: hence a rustic in general.-Tí vôv. What now has happened to you, O unhappy man? Comp. Viger, v. 9. 11. seqq. 'Supe is Doric for ☎ oïcupé. Comp. Aristoph. Nub. 645. Vesp. 1502. Пenovens, Doric for Temóveis, and this for exemóveis. Comp. vii. 88. Matth. Gr. Gr. 198. 4. and Koen on Gregorius Cor. p. 81.-2. Obte tov byμov. Neither art thou able to proceed in a straight line, &c. Thus the Scholiast: Οὔτε τὴν εὐθεῖαν τάξιν, ὡς πρότερον, διατήρεις. Ογμος properly signifies a furrow made in ploughing: hence a
line; a row of mowers; the straight space which is cut in mowing; also the swath cut. In Homer, 11. A. 67. we have: Οἱ δ ̓, ὥστ ̓ ἀμητῆρες ἐναντίοι ἀλλήλοισιν ̓́Ογμον ἐλαύνωσιν, κ. τ. λ. “ Ογμος On which Heyne writes: est ordo metentium frugem, inde et series frugis seu demetendæ, seu demessæ in agro jacentis. Comp. Z. 546. 557. nostris hominibus das Schwad. Oyμov èλaúvew, ut apud Theocritum, x. 2. byμov byeш opedv, erit accipiendum de ipso opere faciendo, seu de ordine stipularum, quem metendo ac secando pererrat messor: èλaúveι adeo, yet, ducit, facit, seriem stipularum recisarum. Eodem modo quo sulcum arator facit, ducit, èλaúvei: ut Pindar, P. iv. 405. ὀρθὰς δ' αὔλακας ἐντανύσαις
avve: sic Latini ducere sulcum, pro facere." More modern editors generally follow in the same track. But Dr. Kennedy, late Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, in his excellent edition of Homer, observes: Heyne cites Pindar in favour of that which he prefers. I do not think, however, that the passage he cites bears him out in his interpretation, and should prefer the construction, ἐναντίοι ἀλλήλοισιν ἐλαύ νωσι κατὰ τὸν ἔγμον : ply their task in