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chia. And in the moneth Pyanepsion (to wit, the October following) Demosthenes died in this manner. When news came to Athens, that Antipater and Craterus were coming thither with a great army, Demosthenes and his friends got out of the town a little before they entered, the people by Demades' persuasion, having condemned them to die. So, every man making shift for himself, Antipater sent soldiers after them to take them: and of them Archias was captain, surnamed Phygadotheras, as much to say, as a hunter of the banished men. It is reported that this Archias was born in the city of Thurii, and that he had been sometimes a common player of tragedies: and that Polus also who was born in the city of Egina, (the excellentest craftsmaister in that faculty of all men) was his scholar. Yet Hermippus doth recite him amongst the number of the scholars of Lacritus the Orator. And Demetrius also writeth, that he had been at Anaximenes' school. Now this Archias having found the orator Hyperides in the city of Ægina, Aristonicus Marathonian, and Himeræus the brother of Demetrius the Phalerian, which had taken sanctuary in the temple of Aiax: he took them out of the temple by force, and sent them unto Antipater, who was at that time in the city of Cleonæ, where he did put them all to death: and some say, that he did cut off Hyperides' tongue. Furthermore, hearing that Demosthenes had taken sanctuary in the Isle of Calauria, he took little pinnaces, and a certain number of Thracian soldiers, and being come thither, he sought to persuade Demosthenes to be contented to go with him unto Antipater, promising him that he should have no hurt. Demosthenes had a strange dream the night before, and thought that he had played a tragedy contending with Archias, and that he handled himself so well, that all the lookers on at the theatre did commend him, and gave him the honour to be the best player: howbeit that otherwise, he was not so well furnished as Archias and his players, and that in all manner of furniture he did far exceed him. The next morning when Archias came to speak with him, who using gentle words unto him, thinking thereby to win him by fair means to leave the sanctuary: Demosthenes looking him full in the face, sitting still where he was, without removing, said unto him: O Archias, thou diddest never persuade me

when thou playedst a play, neither shalt thou now persuade me, though thou promise me. Then Archias began to be angry with him, and to threaten him. O said Demosthenes, now thou speakest in good earnest, without dissimulation, as the oracle of Macedon hath commanded thee: for before, thou spakest in the clouds, and far from thy thought. But I pray thee stay a while, till I have written somewhat to my friends. After he had said so, he went into the temple as though he would have despatched some letters, and did put the end of the quill in his mouth which he wrote withal, and bit it as his manner was when he did use to write anything, and held the end of the quill in his mouth a pretty while together : then he cast his gown over his head, and laid him down. Archias' soldiers seeing that, being at the door of the temple, laughing him to scorn (thinking he had done so for that he was afraid to die) called him coward, and beast. Archias also coming to him, prayed him to rise, and began to use the former persuasions to him, promising him that he would make Antipater his friend. Then Demosthenes feeling the poison work, cast open his gown, and boldly looking Archias in the face, said unto him: Now when thou wilt, play Creon's part, and throw my body to the dogs, without further grave or burial. For my part, O god Neptune, I do go out of thy temple being yet alive, because I will not profane it with my death: but Antipater, and the Macedonians, have not spared to defile thy sanctuary with blood, and cruel murder. Having spoken these words, he prayed them to stay him up by his arm-holes, for his feet began already to fail him, and thinking to go forward, as he passed by the altar of Neptune, he fell down, and giving one gasp, gave up the ghost. Now touching the poison, Aristo reporteth, that he sucked and drew it up into his mouth out of his quill, as we have said before. But one Pappus (from whom Hermippus hath taken his history) writeth, that when he was laid on the ground before the altar, they found the beginning of a letter which said: Demosthenes unto Antipater, but no more. Now his death being thus sudden, the Thracian soldiers that were at the temple door, reported that they saw him pluck the poison which he put into his mouth, out of a little cloth he had, thinking to them that it had been a piece of gold he had swallowed down. Howbeit a maid of the house that served him, being examined by Archias about it: told him that he had carried it about him a long time, for a preservative for him. Eratosthenes writeth, that he kept this poison in a little box of gold made hollow within, the which he ware as a bracelet about his arm. There are many writers also that do report his death diversely, but to recite them all it were in vain: saving that there was one called Demochares (who was Demosthenes' very friend) said, that he died not so suddenly by poison, but that it was the special favour of the gods (to preserve him from the cruelty of the Macedonians) that so suddenly took him out of his life, and made him feel so little pain. Demosthenes died the sixteenth day of the moneth Pynepsion (to wit, October) on the which day they do celebrate at Athens the feast of Ceres, called Thesmophoria, which is the dolefulest feast of all the year: on the which day also, the women remain all day long in the temple of the goddess, without meat or drink. Shortly after, the Athenians to honour him according to his deserts, did cast his image in brass, and made a law besides, that the oldest man of his house should for ever be kept within the palace, at the charge of the commonwealth: and engraved these verses also upon the base of his image: Hadst thou Demosthenes had strength according to thy heart, The Macedons should not have wrought the Greeks such woe and

smart.

For they that think that it was Demosthenes himself that made the verses in the Isle of Calauria, before he took his poison: they are greatly decieved. But yet a little before my first coming to Athens, there went a report that such a thing happened. A certain soldier being sent for to come unto his captain, did put such pieces of gold as he had into the hands of Demosthenes' statue, which had both his hands joined together : and there grew hard by it a great plane tree, divers leaves whereof either blown off by wind by chance, or else put there of purpose by the soldier, covered so this gold, that it was there a long time, and no man found it: until such time as the soldier came again, and found it as he left it. Hereupon this matter running abroad in every man's mouth, there were divers wise men that took occasion of this subject, to make epigrams in the praise of Demosthenes, as one who in his life was never corrupted. Furthermore, Demades did not long enjoy the honour he thought he had newly gotten. For the justice of the gods, revenger of the death of Demosthenes, brought him into Macedon, to receive just punishment by death of those whom he dishonestly flattered: being before grown hateful to them, and afterwards committed a fault whereby he could not escape. For there were letters of his taken, by the which he did persuade, and pray Perdiccas, to make himself king of Macedon, and to deliver Greece from bondage, saying that it hung by a thread, and yet it was half rotten, meaning thereby, Antipater. Dinarchus Corinthian accused him, that he wrote these letters: the which so grievously offended Cassander, that first he slew his own son in his arms, and then commanded they should afterwards kill Demades, making him feel then by those miseries (which are the cruellest that can happen unto man) that traitors betraying their own country do first of all betray themselves.

Demosthenes had often forewarned him of his end, but he would never believe him. Thus, my friend Sossius, you have what we can deliver you, by reading, or report, touching Demosthenes' life and doings.

THE LIFE OF MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO

As touching Cicero's mother, whose name was Helvia, it is reported she was a gentlewoman born, and lived always very honestly: but for his father, the reports of him are divers and infinite. For some say that he was born and brought up in a fuller's shop: others report that he came of Tullius Attius, who while he lived was honoured among the Volscians as king, and made very sharp and cruel wars with the Romans. But surely it seems to me, that the first of that name called Cicero, was some famous man, and that for his sake his offspring continued still that surname, and were glad to keep it, though many men scorned it, because Cicer in English signifieth a cich-pease. That Cicero had a thing upon the tip of his nose, as it had been a little wart, much like to a cich-pease, whereupon they surnamed him Cicero. But this Cicero, whose life we write of now, nobly answered certain of his friends on a time giving him counsel to change his name, when he first made suit for office, and began to practise in matters of state: That he would endeavour himself to make the name of Ciceros more noble and famous, than the Scauri, or Catuli. After that, Cicero being made treasurer in Sicily, he gave an offering of certain silver plate unto the gods, and at large engraved on it his two first names, Marcus Tullius: and in place of his third name, he pleasantly commanded the workman to cut out the form and fashion of a cich-pease. Thus much they write of his name.

Now for his birth, it was said that his mother was brought a-bed of him without any pain, the third day of January: on which day the magistrates and governors of Rome do use at this present, yearly to make solemn prayers and sacrifices unto the gods, for the health and prosperity of the emperor. Further, it is reported, that there appeared an image to his nurse, that did prognosticate unto her, she gave a child suck, which in time to come should do great good unto all the Romans. Now though such things may seem but dreams and fables unto many, yet Cicero himself shortly after proved this prophecy true: because that when he came of age to learn, he grew so toward, and wan such fame among the boys, for his

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