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Greek States to concert measures against King Philip, and was appointed a member of the embassy which was sent to Arcadia to further the project. The embassy failed in its purpose, whereupon Æschines revealed his character by changing sides, becoming an adherent of the peace party, and as such procuring appointment on the famous embassy to Philip (B.C. 346) preliminary to the peace of Philocrates. Æschines was won over by Philip's flattery (Demosthenes boldly charges him with being bribed, and Philip afterward made no exception of him in his sweeping charge that he had found no ambassador but Xenocrates, the philosopher, whose favor he was unable to purchase) and advocated a close alliance with the Macedonian king as the safest course for Athens. Almost immediately after the conclusion of the peace, he was indicted by Timarchus, an adherent of Demosthenes, for treasonable conduct, but was triumphantly acquitted. A second accusation brought by Demosthenes himself in B.c. 343, was more nearly successful, and Æschines narrowly escaped conviction, after an able defence in which he was aided by the intercession of Eubulus and Phocion. Æschines next appears as one of the representatives of Athens at the Amphictyonic Council at Delphi in B.C. 339. Here, as he tells us, he was so enraged by an unjust complaint which the delegates from Amphissa brought against Athens, that he in turn made a vehement counter-attack on the Amphissians for their occupation of the sacred plain of Cirrha. So infuriated were the Amphictyons by his invective, that, after burning the buildings of the offending Amphissian settlers, they voted to hold a special meeting of the council to consider what further punishment should be inflicted. Athens and Thebes refused to send delegates to this assembly and thus became involved in war with Philip and the rest of the Amphictyons—a war which resulted in the fatal battle of Chæronea and the downfall of Athenian independence.

After the battle of Chæronea, the party of Eschines naturally fell into disfavor. He does not figure prominently in public affairs again until B.C. 330, when he made a final effort to defeat his hated rival. An obscure politician named Ctesiphon had in B.C. 336 brought in a bill proposing to confer a golden crown upon Demosthenes for his services to the State. Æschines raised objection to this on the score of illegality. The case did not come to trial till six years had elapsed, and then each of the orators exhausted every effort to crush the opponent. But Æschines was the weaker, both in genius and in merit, and not receiving the fifth part of the votes of the court, he was fined one thousand drachmas, and lost the right of appearing before the people in a similar capacity again. He left Athens and went first to Ephesus and afterwards to Rhodes, where he is said to have opened a school of oratory. He died at Samos at the age of seventy-five.

Only three orations of Æschines have been preserved, and all of these bear, directly or indirectly, on his quarrel with Demosthenes. Their titles are: Against Timarchus, On the Dishonest Embassy, and Against Ctesiphon; the occasion and subject of each have been noticed above. The second of them is generally considered the best. In natural gifts of oratory Æschines was inferior to Demosthenes alone among his contemporaries. He excelled particularly in brilliant narrative, and was also one of the first to win a reputation for extemporaneous speech. His chief deficiency was in moral character. HYPERIDES was born in Athens about B.C. 390.

He was a pupil of Plato and Isocrates, and early won distinction as a forensic and political orator in spite of scandals connected with his private life. At first he was the steadfast ally of Demosthenes in the struggle against the Macedonian party in Athens, but when Demosthenes was accused of taking bribes from Alexander's treasurer, Harpalus, he aided in the prosecution. When Athens was at Alexander's mercy after the destruction of Thebes (B.C. 335), the young conqueror demanded that he, Demosthenes and Lycurgus, as the inveterate enemies of Macedon, be given up to him, and it was with difficulty that the orators escaped. After the death of Alexander (B.C. 323), he stirred up the Lamian War, at the unfortunate conclusion of which he and Demosthenes (who had been reconciled to one another in the meantime) and otler patriots were condemned to death by the Macedonian party. He Aed for sanctuary to a temple in Ægina, but was dragged

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away from it by force, and by order of Antipater was put to death at Corinth in 322 B.C.

Seventy-seven speeches were ascribed to Hyperides, only a few fragments of which were known until recent times; but in 1847, in a tomb at Thebes in Egypt, extensive fragments were found of his speech against Demosthenes, together with a speech of Lycophron, and the whole of his oration for Euxenippus. In 1856 there was a further discovery in Egypt of an important part of the funeral oration delivered in B.C. 322 over those who had fallen in the siege of Lamia. In 1889 M. Eugène Revillout announced the purchase by the Louvre of a papyrus containing portions of the first oration of Hyperides against Athenogenes.

While the speeches of Hyperides do not possess the force and moral earnestness of those of Demosthenes, they were skilful in construction and graceful in expression, being typical productions of the practiced professional pleader. Witty, ironical, urbane, he has been compared in relation to Demosthenes, to Lord Salisbury in relation to Mr. Gladstone. A better parallel would be of Rufus Choate to Daniel Webster.

LYCURGUS was another leader of the democratic party in the contest with Philip of Macedon. The time of his birth is uncertain, but he was older then Demosthenes. Like Hyperides, he was a pupil of Plato and Isocrates, and entered in a similar fashion into politics. In B.C. 343 we find him a member of the Athenian ambassadors who succeeded in counteracting the designs of Philip against Ambracia and the Peloponnesus. He filled the office of treasurer of the public revenue for three periods of five years, and was noted for the integrity and ability with which he discharged the duties of his office—indeed, he seems to have been the only statesman of antiquity who had a real knowledge of the management of finance. He raised the revenue to twelve hundred talents, and also erected during his administration many public buildings, and completed the docks, the armory, the theater of Dionysus, and the Panathenaic course. In order that the public might know how its funds were administered, he had his accounts engraved on stone, and set up in a part of the wrestling school. So great confidence was placed in the honesty of Lycurgus

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that many citizens confided to his custody large sums. After the battle of Chæronea (B.C. 388) Lycurgus conducted the accusation against the Athenian general Lysicles. He was one of the orators demanded by Alexander after the destruction of Thebes (B.C. 335). He died about B.C. 323 and his body was burned in the Academia. Fifteen years after his death, upon the ascendancy of the democratic faction, a decree was passed by the Athenian people that public honors should be paid to Lycurgus. A brazen statue of him was erected in the Ceramicus, and the representative of his family was allowed the privilege of dining in the Prytaneum.

Lycurgus is said to have published fifteen orations, of which only one has been preserved,—an accusation against Leocrates as an Athenian citizen, for abandoning Athens after the battle of Chæronea, and settling in another Grecian State.

DINARCHUS (born B.c. 361) was a Corinthian by birth who settled at Athens and adopted the occupation of writing speeches for others. He flourished after the passing of Demosthenes and other great orators of his age, and so won his oratorical laurels with ease. He supported the aristocratic party, and upon the ascendancy of the democratic was involved in a charge of conspiracy against the administration, whereupon he withdrew to Chalcis in Euboea. After an absence of fifteen years he was allowed to return to Athens. On his arrival he lodged with Proxenus, an old acquaintance, who robbed the old man of his money. Dinarchus brought an action against him, and for the first time in his life, made his appearance in a court of justice. Of the numerous orations of Dinarchus only three remain (one against Demosthenes, touching the affairs of Harpalus), and these are not entitled to any very high praise. He does not deserve his place among the Ten Attic Orators; this should be given to Pericles.

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PLUTARCH

THE LIVES OF

DEMOSTHENES

AND

CICERO

WITH A

COMPARISON OF THE TWO ORATORS

TRANSLATED BY

SIR THOMAS NORTH
FROM THE FRENCH TRANSLATION OF JACQUES AMYOT

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY

LIFE OF PLUTARCH

BY AMYOT

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