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"the sun? shew yourself in the city? appear before your fellow-citizens? Ought not the very sight of "this corpse, and these images, which seem to reproach you with all with all your extravagancies, to fill you

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"with fear and horror?"

Sometimes only a turn, or a sentiment thrown into a speech, produced this effect. Cicero, in the short narrative he made in pleading for Ligarius, might, according to Quintilian's observation, be satisfied with saying, [i] Tum Ligarius nullo se implicari negotio passus est. [k] But he joins an image to it, which makes the narrative more probable and moving. Tum Ligarius domum spectans, & ad suos redire cupiens, nullo se implicari negotio passus est.

[4] Virgil, in less than a single verse, gives a very moving description of the death of a young man, who had left Argos, the place of his birth, in order to attach himself to Evander,

Et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos.

"And his last thoughts recal his native Argos.'

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[m] This tender regard of a dying young man for his country, which he should never see more, and melancholy remembrance of what was most delightful and dear to him in the world, form a beautiful picture in three words: dulces... reminiscitur . . . moriens.

These passages are very moving, because the images they express awaken the sentiments of love and tenderness for one's country, which every man bears in his heart; and they have a nearer relation to that kind of emotions we are going to speak of.

[n] Besides this first species of the strongest and most violent passions, which the rhetoricians call átes there is another sort they calls, which consists in

[i] Pro Ligar. n. 3.

[k] Ita, quod exponebat, & ratione fecit credibile, & affectus quoque implevit. Quint. I. 4. c. 2.

[1] Æneid. l. 10. v. 782. [m] Quid? Non idem poeta penitus ultimi fati cepit imaginem, ut diceret, Et dulces moriens reminifciD

tur Argos? Ibid.

[n] Affectus igitur hos concitatos, illos mites atque compofitos esse dixerunt: in altero vehementer commotos, in altero lenes: denique hos imperare, illos perfuadere : hos ad perturbationem, illos ad benevo lentiam prævalere. Quint. 1. 6. c. 3.



softer and more insinuating sentiments, and yet are not therefore less moving or lively; [0] the effect of which is not to overthrow and carry away every thing, as it were by main force; but to affect and soften, by insinuating itself gently into the most inward recesses of the auditors hearts. These Passions are natural to those who are united in some strict union; a prince and his subjects, a father and his children, a tutor and his pupils, a benefactor and those who receive the effects of his beneficence. Those Passions consist, with superiors who have been injured, in a certain character of mildness, goodness, humanity, and patience, which is without gall and bitterness; can bear injuries, and forget them; and which cannot resist prayers and tears; and with the culpable, in a readiness in being made sensible of their faults: acknowledging them; testifying their grief for them; humbling and submitting themselves, and giving all the satisfaction that can be desired. All this must be done after a plain and natural manner, without study and affectation; the air, the outward behaviour, the ges

[o] "Hoos id erit, quod ante omnia bonitate commendabitur: non solum mite ac placidum, sed plerumquè blandum & humanum, & audientibus amabile atque jucundum. In quo exprimendo summa virtus ea est, ut fluere omnia ex naturâ rerum hominumqne videantur, quo mores dicentis ex oratione pelluceant, & quodammodo agnoscantur. Quod est sine dubio inter conjunctas maximè personas, quoties perferimus, ignoscimus, satisfacimus, monemus, procul ab irâ, procul ab odio. . . Hoc omne bonum & comem virum poscit. Quint. 1. 6. c. 3.

Duo sunt, quæ bene tractata ab oratore admirabilem eloquentiam faciunt: quorum alterum est quod Græci vocant, ad naturam, & ad mores, & ad omnem vitæ consuetudinem accommodatum: alterum quod iidem això nominant, quo perturbantur animi & concitantur, in quo uno regnat oratio. Illud superius come, jucundum, ad

benevolentiam conciliandam comparatum; hoc, vehemens, incensum, incitatum, quo causæ eripiuntur: quod cùm rapidè fertur, sustineri nullo pacto potest. Orat. n.


Non semper fortis oratio quæritur, sed sæpe placida, summissa, lenis, quæ maximè commendat reos. ... Horum igitur exprimere mores oratione, justos, integros, religiosos, timidos, perferentes injuriarum, mirum quiddam valet: & hoc vel in principiis, vel in re narrandâ, vel in perorando tantam habet vim, si est suaviter & cum sensu tractatum, ut sæpe plus quam causa valeat. Tantum autem efficitur sensu quodam ac ratione dicendi, ut quasi mores orationis effingat oratio. Genere enim quodam sententiarum, & genere verborum, adhibitâ etiam actione leni, facilitateque significandi, efficitur ut probi, ut bene morati, ut boni viri esse videantur. 2. de Orat. n. 183, 184.


ture, tone of voice, style, and every thing, must breathe something inexpressibly soft and tender, which proceeds from the heart, and goes directly to it. The manners of the person who speaks must shew themselves in his discourse, without his observing it. It is well known, that nothing is more amiable than such a character, not only for eloquence, but in the ordinary commerce of life; and we cannot prompt youth too much to be attentive to it, to study and imitate it.


[p] We find a beautiful example of this in a homily of St. John Chrysostom to the people of Antioch. As passage is very eloquent, and very fit to form the taste of youth, suffer me to expatiate a little more upon it, than perhaps the matter I am now discussing requires; and to make a kind of an analysis and epitome of it.

The emperor Theodosius had sent some officers and soldiers to Antioch, in order to punish that rebellious city for a sedition, in which his own statues and those of his deceased consort Flaccilla were thrown down. Flavian, bishop of Antioch, notwithstanding the inclemency of the season, notwithstanding his very advanced age, and though his sister was dying when he left her, set out immediately to implore that prince's clemency in favour of his people. Being come to the palace, and admitted into the emperor's presence, he no sooner perceived that prince, but he stopped at a distance with down-cast eyes, shedding tears, covering his face, and standing silent as though himself had been guilty. This is an artful exordium, and this silence is infinitely more eloquent than all the expressions he could use. And indeed St. Chrysostom observes, that, by this mournful and pathetic exterior, his design was to prepare the way for his oration, and to insinuate himself into the emperor's heart insensibly, in order that sentiments of lenity and compassion, which his cause required, might succeed to those of anger and vengeance.

The emperor, seeing him in this condition, did not employ any harsh reproaches, which Flavian might na

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turally expect. He did not say to him, What; are you come to crave pardon for rebels, for ungrateful wretches, for a people unworthy of life, and who merit the severest punishments? But, assuming a soft tone of voice, he made a long enumeration of all the good offices he had done for the city of Antioch; and, upon mentioning every one of those favours, he adds: Is this the acknowledgment I was to expect? What cause of complaint had its citizens against me? What injury had I done them? But why should they extend their insolence even to the dead? Had they received any wrong from them? What tenderness did I not shew for their city? Is it not notorious, that I loved it more than my own country, and that it gave me the greatest pleasure to think I should soon be in a condition of taking a journey to see it!

Then the holy Bishop, being unable to bear such moving reproaches any longer, says with deep sighs: It is true, Sir, the goodness you have vouchsafed us could not be carried higher; which enhances our crime, and our grief: whatever punishment you may inflict upon us, it will still fall short of what we deserve. Alas! our present condition is no common degree of punishment; to have the whole earth know our ingratitude!

If the barbarians had demolished our city, it would still have had a resource, and some hopes, whilst it had you for a protector. But to whom shall it now have recourse, since it has made itself unworthy of your protection?

The envy of the devil, jealous of her happiness, has plunged her into this abyss of evils, out of which you alone can extricate her. I dare say it, Sir, it is your very affection that has brought them upon us, by exciting the jealousy of that wicked spirit against us. But, like God himself, you may draw infinite good out of the evil which Satan intended against us

Your clemency on this occasion will be more honourable to you than the most celebrated victories. Your statues have been thrown down. If you pardon

this crime, we will raise others in your honour, not of marble or brass, which time destroys, but such as will exist eternally in the hearts of all those who shall

hear of this action.

He afterwards proposed the example of Constantine to him, who, being importuned by his courtiers to display his vengeance on some seditious people that had disfigured his statues by throwing stones at them, did nothing more than stroke his face with his hand, and told them smiling, that he did not feel himself hurt.

He sets before him his own clemency, and puts him in mind of one of his own laws, in which, after hav ing ordered the prisons to be opened, and the criminals to be pardoned, at the feast of Easter, he added this memorable saying; Would to God I were able in the same manner to open the graves, and restore the dead to life! That time is come, Sir; you can now do it, &c.

He makes the honour of religion concerned in this affair. All the Jews and Heathens, says he, have their eyes upon you, and are waiting for the sentence you will pronounce. If it be favourable to us, they will be filled with admiration, and cry out, Surely the God of the Christians must be very powerful! He checks the anger of those who acknowledge no master upon earth, and can transform men into angels.

After he had answered the objection that might be made with regard to the unhappy consequences which were to be feared, if this crime should escape with impunity; and likewise demonstrated, that Theodosius, by such a rare example of clemency, might edify the whole earth, and instruct all future ages; he proceeds thus:

It will be infinitely glorious for you, Sir, to have granted this pardon at the request of a minister of the Lord; and mankind will see, that, without considering the unworthiness of the ambassador, you respected nothing in him but the power of the Master who sent him.

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