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his obliging deportment and engaging behaviour than his liberality. As he was perfectly acquainted with the science of war, he abounded in stratagems and expedients; witness the change of arms and establishment of cavalry which he introduced among the Persians. He was sober, vigilant, inured to labour, insensible of the allurements of pleasure; and the contrast between him and Cyaxares very much exalts the value of his excellent qualities.

At an age, when the passions are usually most violent, and in the very heat of victory, when every thing seems allowable, in the midst of the applauses and praises he received on all sides, he always reniained absolute master of himself, and gave a young lord,

a who was very unlike him, such lectures of continence and virtue, as are surprising even to us that are Christians, and are so very remote from our manners, that they seem almost incredible.

But what must astonish us still more, is the infinite veneration he paid to the gods, his exactness in forming no enterprise without consulting them, and imploring their assistance; his religious

acknowledgment of their favours, by ascribing all his good success to them; and the open profession of piety and religion he was not ashamed to make at all times and upon all occasions, if I may be allowed to use these terms in the case of a prince, who was ignorant of the true God.

This is what youth must study in Cyrus; and it may not be amiss to observe to them, that one of the greatest commanders in the Roman republit was formed upon this model, I' mean the second Scipio Africanus, who had the admirable books of the Cyropædia continually in his hands.' [a] Quos quidem libros non sine causâ noster ille Scipio Africanus de manibus poneri non solebat. Nullum est enim prætermissum in his officium diligentis & moderatiimperii.

[0] Cic. Ep. 1. ad Quint. Fratr.


III. The



In the council, which was held in the presence of Cyaxares, it was resolved to continue the war. They made preparations for it with indefatigable ardour. The enemy's army were still more in number than they had been the preceding campaign, and Egypt alone furnished above sixscore thousand men. They met at Thymbræa, a city of Lydia. Cyrus, after taking all necessary precautions for supplying his army with every thing it might want, in which he was surprisingly particular, as Xenophon relates at large, determined to begin his march. Cyaxares did not follow him, but tarried behind with a third part of the

а Medes only, that he might not leave his country entirely without troops.

As Abradates, king of Susiąna, was preparing to put on his armour, his wife Panthea brought him an helmet, with bracelets and lockets of massey gold, a coat of arms fit for him plaited to the bottom, and a large plume of feathers of a purple colour. She had wrought the most part of them with her own hands unknown to her husband, that she might have the pleasure of surprising him with the present. And tho' passionately fond of hin, she exhoried hiņ rather to die with his arms in his hand, than not signalize himself by some action worthy their birth, and the character she had given of him to Cyrus. We, says she, are under the highest obligations to him. When I was his prisoner, and as such designed for him, I was not treated as a slave by him, nor restored to liberty upon shameful conditions. He took as much care of me, as if I had been the wife of his own brother; and I promised him that you should be grateful for such a favour. Be not therefore unmindful of it. O Jupiter ! cries Abradates, lifting up his eyes to heaven, grant that I may this day shew myself a husband worthy of Panthea, and a friend that deserves so generous a be



nefactor. When he had said this, he mounted his . chariot. Panthea who could hold him no longer in her arms, kissed the chariot, and following it for some time on foot, at length retired.

When the armies were come within view of each other, they prepared for battle. After public and general prayers, Cyrus offered libations in particular, and again besought the god of his father to espouse his cause, and guide him with his assistance. . And hearing a clap of thunder, he cried out, [6] We follow thee, Ü Jupiter supreme; and instantly advanced towards the enemy. As the front of their battle far exceeded that of the Persians, they in the center stood still, whilst the two wings advanced, inclining to the right and left, with a design to surround the army of Cyrus, and charged him at the same time in several places. This was what he expected, and was not at all surprised at. He ran through all the ranks, to encourage his troops, and though upon other occasions he behaved with so much modesty, and was so reinote from all appearance of vanity, when he was upon the point to engage, he cried out with a resolute and decisive voice, Follow to certain victory; the gods are on our side. After giving all necessary orders, and causing the usual hymn to be sung through all the army, he gave the signal.

Cyrus began with attacking the wing of the enemy, which bad advanced upon the right flank of his army, and having charged it also in flank, put it into disorder. The same was done on the other side, where they made the squadronof camels advance first. The enemy's cavalry did not wait their coming up; but as soon as the horses saw them at a distance, they fell back upon one another, and some of them prancing and flinging, threw their riders to the ground. The chariots armed with scythes finished what was wanting to complete the confusion. In the mean time Abradates, who commanded the chariots that were placed

[6] God indeed was actually his guide, but a very different God from Jupiter.




He was

at the head of the army, brought them on full speed. The enemy was unable to sustain so rough a charge, and were put to the rout. Abradates having pierced them, fell upon the battalions of the Egyptians; but his chariot being unfortunately overturned, he was slain with his men, after having given extraordinary proofs of his valour. The battle was fierce on that side, and the Persians were forced to fall back as far as their machines. There the Egyptians found themselves much incommoded by the arrows that were cast from those rolling towers, and the battalions of the rear-guard of the Persians advancing sword in hand, hindered the archers from passing farther, and obliged them to return to their post. There was then nought else to be seen but rivers of blood streaming on every side. In the mean time Cyrus came up, after having put to flight whatever had opposed him. grieved to see the Persians had given way, and judging the Egyptians would still go on to gain ground, he resolved to attack them in the rear; and in an instant having thrown himself with his troops behind their battalions, he charged them rudely. The horse at the same time advanced, and attacked the enemy briskly. The Egyptians, thus encompassed on every side, faced about on all sides, and defended themselves with wonderful courage. Cyrus at last admiring their valour, and being unwilling to suffer so many brave men to be cut in pieces, offered them honourable conditions, representing to them that all their allies had forsaken them. These conditions were accepted, and they afterwards served in his troops with inviolable fidelity.

After the loss of the battle, Cresus fled with great diligence to Sardis with his troops, whither Cyrus pursued him the next day, and made himself master of the city without any resistance. · From thence he marched directly to Babylon, conquering by the way the greater Phrygia and Cappadocia. When he was come before the town, and had carefully examined its situation, walls, and fortifica: tions, every one judged it was absolutely impossible to take it by force. lle seemed therefore resolved upon the design of carrying it by famine. To this end he caused very large and deep ditches to be dug quite round the town, to prevent, as he said, any thing from entering in or going out. The people of the city could not help ridiculing his design to besiege them; and as the town was furnished with more than twenty years provisions, they made a jest of all the trouble he was at. When his works were finished, Cyrus was advised that a great festival was soon to be solemnized, whereon all the Babylonians spent the night in drinking and revelling. Upon the night of the festival, which came on early, he caused the mouth of the trenches to be opened which pointed towards the rivers, when the water rushed impetuously into this new channel, and leaving its former bed dry, opened Cyrus a free pas- . sage into the city. His troops therefore entered without any resistance. They marched forward till they came to the palace, where the king was slain. At break of day the citadel surrendered upon the news that the town was taken, and the king dead. Cyrus caused proclamation to be made in all quarters, that whoever would escape with their lives, should tarry in their houses, and send him their arins; which was done immediately. And this was all the trouble this prince had in conquering the richest and strongest city then in the world.

Cyrus began with returning thanks to the gods for the good success they had granted him; he assembled the principal officers, publicly commended their courage, wisdom, zeal, and fidelity, and distributed rewards to the whole army.

He then reinonstrated to - them, that the only way to preserve what they had acquired, was to persevere in their ancient virtue; that the fruits of a victory did not consist in abandoning themselves to ease and idleness ; that after they had conquered the enemy by force of arms, it would be shameful to let themselves be conquered by the allurements of pleasure ; that lastly, if they would

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