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Je le pris tout sanglant. En baignant son visage,
Mes pleurs du sentiment lui rendirent l'usage :
Et soit frayeur encore, ou pour me caresser,
De ses bras innocens je me sentis presser.
“ Alas! the state in which heav'n gave him to me,

Returns each moment to my frighted soul ;
“The room was fillid around with murder'd princes.
"Dread Athaliah, with her sword unsheath'd,
“Rous'd her barbarian soldiers to the slaughter,
"And still pursued the series of her murders.
“ Joas, now left as dead ! struck strong my sight :
“ Methinks I still behold his weeping nurse,
" Kneeling, in vain, before the bloody hangman ;
" The tender babe upon her breast reclind.
"I took him bloody : bathing then his face,
“Soon did my tears recal his fleeting breath.
" Whether 'twas fear, or whether to embrace me,
" I felt him press me with his tender arms.”

M. Flechier's description of hospitals may serve as a model in this kind. "Tis in the queen's funeral oration. “ Let us behold her in these hospitals, where

she practised her public acts of pity; in those places, "where all the infirmities and accidents of human

life are assembled; where the groans and com

plaints of those who suffer, and are in pain, fill " the soul with sympathetic sadness; where the smell that exhales from the bodies of so many diseased patients, makes those who attend upon them ready to faint away; where we see pain and poverty exer

cising their fatal empire; and where the image of “misery and death strikes almost every sense. It is

there, that raising herself above the fears and deli“cacies of nature, to satisfy her charity, though at "the hazard of her health, she was seen every week "drying up the tears of this object; providing for "the wants of that: procuring remedies and com“forts for the evils of some, and consolations and

of conscience for others." These passages are very well adapted to the taste of



kind of pas

youth. [6] We must observe to them, that the most certain way of succeeding in descriptions of this kind is to consult nature, to study her well, and to take her as a guide; so that every one, inwardly sensible of the truth of what is spoken, may find within himself the sentiments expressed in the discourse. [c] For that purpose we must represent to ourselves, in a lively manner, all the circumstances of the thing to be described, and bring it before us by the strength of our imagination, as if we had been spectators of it. [d] And why, says Quintilian, should not the imagination perform as much for the orator on this occasion, as she does for people who are addicted to any sions? as for instance, misers and ambitious men, who in this kind of pleasing dreams, in which they form a thousand chimerical projects of fortune and riches, abandon themselves so much to the object of their darling passion, and are so strongly possessed with it, that they really believe they see and enjoy it.

Quintilian himself furnishes us with a model of this way of making a description, which I will quote at length, because it shews youth how they must proceed in it, in order to compose well., [e] Ut hominem occisum querar, non omnia, quæ in re prasenti accidisse credibile est, in oculis habebo ? Non percussor ille subitus erumpet ? non expavescet circumventus ? exclamabit, vel rogabit, rel fugiet? non ferientem, non concidentem videbo? non animo sanguis, & pallor, & gemitus, extremus denique expirantis hiatus insidei ?

“ In order to aggra“ vate the circumstances of a murder, should I not “call up to my imagination every thing that might

1. 8. c. 3.

[1] Naturam intueamur, hanc se- res, voces, actus secundum verum quainur. Omnis eloquentia circa optimè fingit. Quint. 1. 6. C. 2. opera vitæ est;

ad se refert quisque [d] Nam si inter otia animorum que audit : & id facillimè accipi- & spes inanes, & velut somnia quæunt animi, quod cognoscunt. Quint. dam vigilantium, ita nos ha de qui

bus loquimur imagines prosequun. [c]Per quas (Qaytarías) imagines tur, ut peregrinari, navigare, prærerum absentium ita repræsentan- liari, populos alloqui, divitiarum tur animo, ut eas cernere oculis ac quas non habemus usum videamur presentes habere videamur. Has disponere, nec cogitare, sed facere : quisquis bene conceperit, is erit in hoc animi vitium ad utilitatem non affectibus potentissimus. Hunc quis transferemus ? Ibid. dam dicunt, ευφαντασίωτον, qui sibi [] Quint. 1. 6.c. 2,


possibly happen in such a case ? Shall not he that

gave the blow suddenly burst forth? Shall he not “tremble when laid hold on? Will he not either cry

out, or ask for pity, or attempt to escape? Shall "I not represent the one as striking, the other as fall"ing? Will not the blood, the paleness, the groans,

nay, even the last sighs of the deceased, be present "to my mind ?” This passage seems to be copied from Cicero, who thus describes a like action. [f] Nonne vobis hæc, quæ audistis, cernere oculis videmini, judices? Non illum miserum ignarum casús sui, redeuntem à cæná ridetis ? non positas insidias ? non impetum repentinum ? Non versatur ante oculos vobis in cæde Glaucia ? Non adest iste Roscius? non suis manibus in curru collocat Automedontem illum, sui sceleris acerbissimi nefariæque victoriæ nuncium ? "Do you not, my judges, seem to behold “what has been thus related to you? Do " see that poor man, ignorant of his fate, returning “from supper? Do you not behold the assassins in "ambush their sudden irruption? Does not Glau

cia secm active in this horrid scene? Is not Roscius “ also there assisting? Does he not, with his own “hands, place his Automedon, if I may so speak,

that partner of his guilt, and messenger of his cruci success, in the chariot by him?"

you not


The last words of the description I have here cited, direct me to point out to youth in this place one of the most common sources of oratorial beauties, which consists in giving, as it were, body and reality to the things we are speaking of; and painting them by visible strokes, which may strike the senses, move the imagination, and present a sensible object. This method has some relation to the precedent figure, the hypotyposis, and perhaps is a part of it. Non suis mu

(3 Pro Rosc. Amer. n. 98. VOL. 11



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nibus in curru collocat Automedontem illum? These
words, suis manibus, produce here the effect I am
speaking of, and present an image to the mind. The
same observation may be made on the two verses

Un poignard à la main, l'implacable Athalie
Au carnage animoit ses barbares soldats.

“ Fierce Athalialı, in her hand a poniard,

“ Prompted her savage soldiers to the slaughter." This touch, with a poniard in her hand, forms all the vivacity of these lines. The objects we describe may be painted in this manner with infinite variety, of which I shall give several examples, that the reader may apply to the rule I have already given.

[g] Tendit ad ros virgo restalis manus supplices easdem, quas pro robis diis immortalibus tendere consuevit... Prospicite ne ignis ille æternus, nocturnis Fonteiæ laboribus vigiliisque servatus, sacerdotis l'esta lacrymis ertincius esse dicatur. “ The vestal “stretches forth to you her suppliant hands, those “ hands with which she has often implored the gods “ for your safety. Be mindful, lest that eternal tire, " which has been kept alive be the nightly watchings

and labours of Fonteia, should be in a manner quenched by the tears of this sacred priestess.

[n] llac inagnitudo maleficii facit, ut, nisi penè manifestum parricidium proferatur, credibile non sit. : .. Penè dicam respersas manus sanguine paterno judices videant oportet, si tantum facinus, tam immane, tum acerbum credituri sint. “The great

ness of the crime of parricide is such, that unless " it be almost manifest, it should not be believed. I “ had almost said, that the judges should even see " the murderer's hands red with his father's blood, “ before they give credit to his committing a crime

so hideous and so unnatural."
[8] Pro. M. Font. 9. 37, 38. b) Pro Rosc. Amer. n. 68.

" What

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[i] What nation has not felt the effects of his valour; and which of our frontier towns has not "served as a theatre to his glory.

“ In the tumult and noise of armies, he used to entertain himself with the sweet and secret hopes of

solitude. With one hand he fell upon the Ama" lekites, while the other was lifted up to draw down upon himself the blessings of heaven. “ It taught him to lift up his pure, his innocent hands, to heaven. “Before he accepted of any post or employment, he would know the duties of it. The first tribunal

he ascended, was that of his conscience, there to " examine his intentions thoroughly.

“ When he restored God's worship in his conquests, and as he was marching upon those ramparts " he had a little before demolished, his first homage

was his offering to God the laurels he had won, at the foot of his altars which he restored.

"I am not afraid of blending her praises with the "sacrifice offered for her ; and I take from the altar "all the incense I burn upon her tomb. ... Why "should I take off the vcil which she threw over her “actions ?

" He made it his study to discover truth, through "the veils of falsehood and imposture with which hu"man lusts cover it.

“[k] Are such truths learnt at court, in the army, “under the helmet, and the coat of mail?

“ [l] You think then, that anxiety, and the most deadly sorrows, are not to be hid under royal robes;

or that a kingdom is an universal remedy against all * evils?

“ Methinks I still see that flower falling.” Speakiny of the death of an infant prince.

“When all things submitted to Lewis, and we be"" lieved the miraculous times were returning, when “ walls fell down at the sound of trumpets; the whole nation cast their eyes on the queen, and .[1] Flechier. [4] Mascar,

[?] Bossuet.


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