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warred, opens its bosom to receive you ; and the " theatres, thu eternal object of your favour, which “ had so often drawn down your indignation upon us, “ have abandoned and betrayed you.

I do not speak this to insult the misfortunes of " him who is fallen, nor to open and make wounds

smart that are still bleeding; butin order to support those who are standing, and teach them to avoid the

like evils. And the only way to avoid these, is, to " be fully persuaded of the trailty and vanity of worldly grandeur. To call it a flower, a blade of

grass, a smoke, a dream, is not saying enough, since it is "even below nothing. Of this we have a very sen"sible proof before our eyes. What man ever rose " to such an heigth of grandeur? Was he not im" mensely rich ? Did he not possess every dignity? “ Did not the whole empire stand in fear of him? And

now, more deserted, and trembling still more than " the ineanest wretch, than the vilest slave, than the

prisoners confined in dungeons; having perpetually “ before his eyes swords unsheathed to destroy him;

torments and executioners; deprived of day-light

at noon-day, and expecting every moment that “ death which perpetually stares him in the face.

“You were witnesses yesterday, when people came " from the palace in order to drag hiin hence, how he

ran to the holy altars, shivering in every limb; pale “and dejected, scarce uttering a word but what was “ interrupted by sobs and groans, and rather dead than “ alive. I again repeat, I do not declaim in this

manner in order to insult his fall, but to move and “ affect you by the description of his calamities, and “ inspire you with tenderness and compassion for one “ so wretched.

“ But some hard-hearted, merciless persons, who are even offended at us because we suffered him to "take sanctuary in the church, say, Was not that very “ man its most inveterate enemy, who made laws for

shutting up that sacred asylum? It is so indeed, answers Chysostom; but we ought to glorify God the more, in thus obliging so formidable an enemy of “it to come and pay homage both to the power of “ the church, and to its clemency. To its power, “since his persecution of it caused his fall; to its


clemency, since, notwithstanding all his injurious

treatment, forgetting what is past, he is shrouded “ by its wings; is covered by its protection, as though “ it were a shield; and is received into the holy

sanctuary of those altars, which he himself had of

ten atteinpted to destroy. No victories or trophies “could reflect so much honour on the church. So

generous an action, of which only the church is ca

pable, covers the Jews and infidels with shame. “ To afford protection publicly to a sworn enemy,

fallen into disgrace, abandoned, and become uni“ versally the object of contempt and abhorrence; to “ discover more than a maternal tenderness for him ; “to oppose at one and the same time the anger of “ the emperor, and the blind fury of the people; in “this consists the glory of our holy religion.

“ You declare with indignation, that he made laws “ for shutting up this sacred asylum. But, О man! “ whosoever thou art, art thou then allowed to re

member the injuries that have been done thee? Are we not the servants of a crucified God, who said, as he was breathing his last, [?] Father, for

give them, for they know not what they do? And “ that man, now prostrate before the altar, and ex“posed to the sight of the whole world, does not he

appear in person to annul his own laws, and ac“ knowledge that they were unjust? What a glory “ does this reflect on this altar, and how awful, how “ dreadful is it become, since it keeps that lion in "chains before our eyes! Thus, what exalts the splen“ dor of a monarch, is not his being cloathed in pur

ple, and sitting on his throne, but his treading un"der foot vanquished and captive barbarians. .

" I see that our temple is as much crouded as at the “soleinn feast of Easter. What a lesson does the sight [/] Luke xxiii. 326


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you now behold, afford; and how much more elo:

quent is the silence of this man, reduced to so mi“serable a condition, than all our discourses? The “rich man needs but enter in here, to see the follow

ing words of Scripture verified : [m] All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the

flower of the field. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth, because the spirit of the Lord bloweth upon

it. And the poor man is taught, on this occasion, “ to form a quite different judgment of his condi

tion, than he generally does; to be even pleased

with his poverty, which is to him a sanctuary, a “ haven, a citadel; by affording him security, and

preserving him from those fears and alarms, which " he sees are caused by riches.”

St. Chrysostom's design in this discourse, was not only to instruct his hearers, but to move them to compassion, by the lively description he gave of Eutropius's misfortunes. And indeed he had the consolation, as was before observed, to draw tears from the whole congregation, notwithstanding their great aversion to Eutropius; who was justly considered as the author of all their calamities, both public and private. When St. Chrysostom perceived this, he proceeded in this manner: “Have I calmed your resentinents ? Have I “softened your anger? Have I extinguished inhu“manity in your minds? Have I raised your compas- . “sion? Yes, I certainly must have effected all this; “ for the frame of mind I now behold you in, and the

tears which trickle down your cheeks, are a certain “proof of it. Since then your hearts are become

more tender, and the glow of charity has melted “ their ice, and softened their rigour; let us go toge" ther, and throw ourselves at the emperor's feet; or “ rather, let us beseech the God of mercy to soften “his heart, and incline him to pardon Eutropius.”

This discourse had the desired effect, and St. Chrysostom saved the life of that unhappy man. But some days after, Eutropius having been so imprudent as to leave the church, in order to make his escape; he was

[m] Isaiah xl. 6, 7: VOL. II.


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taken, and banished to Cyprus, where he was afterwards seized and carried to Chalcedon, and there beheaded.



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St. Chrysostom had an intimate friend, Basilius by name, who had persuaded our saint to leave his mother's house, and lead a recluse and solitary life with him. As soon as my afflicted mother, says St. Chrysostom, heard of this, she took me by the hand, carried me into her chamber, and setting me down by her on the bed where she was delivered of me, she began to weep, and spake to me in such tender words, as affected me much more than her tears. “Son, says she, God would not suffer me to

enjoy long your father's virtue. By his death, “which happened soon after the pangs I had suffered “ in bringing you into the world, you became an or

phan, and I a widow, sooner than was for either of

our advantages. I have suffered all the troubles “and afflictions of widowhood, which cannot be “conceived by any, but those who have gone through

No words can express the storms to which a young woman is exposed, who is but just come “ from her father's house, is wholly unacquainted “ with affairs; and who, being overwhelmed with

grief, is obliged to devote herself to new cares, too weighty for her age and sex. She must make up the

negligence of her servants, and guard against their “ malice: must defend herself from the evil designs of her neighbours; must suffer perpetually the in

jurious treatment of the farmers of the revenues, “and the insolence and barbarity they exercise in levying the taxes.

" When a father leaves children behind him, if it “be a daughter, I am sensible the care of her must be

very heavy upon the widow her mother; however, " this care is supportable, since it is not attended " either with fear or ex pence.

But, if it be a son,

" them.

- the educating of him will be much more difficult; “ this fills her with perpetual apprehensions, not to “mention how expensive it is to get him well edu

cated. However, these several evils could never “ prevail upon me to marry. I have continued fixed “and immoveable, amidst these storms and tempests;

and, trusting above all in the grace of God, I de“ termined to suffer all those troubles which are inseparable from widowhood.

“ But my only consolation in these afflictions was to "behold you perpetually, and to contemplate in your

face, the living, the faithful image of my deceased “ husband: a consolation which I received in your “infancy, and when you was yet incapable of speak

ing, at which season parents find the greatest plea“ sure in their children.

“ I have not given you reason to say, that I indeed supported my present condition with courage, but " that I lessened your father's possessions to extricate myself from those difficulties; a misfortune that often befals minors. For I have preserved for you

all “ he left you, though I did not spare any expence for

your education; this I paid myself out of the por“tion given me by my father. I do not say this, my

son, by way of reproaching you with the obligations you owe me. The only favour I ask in return, “ is, that you would not reduce me to widowhood á “ second time. Do not open a wound that was begin

ning to heal; at least stay till I am dead, and perhaps I may be so very soon. Those who are young

may hope to grow old; but at my age I am to ex“pect nothing but death. After you have buried me “ in the same grave with your father, and joined my “ bones to his ashes, then undertake as long journies, " and sail on whatever sea you please; for no one will "binder you: but so long as the breath is in my body, bear with my presence, and do not be tired with liv

ing with me. Do not draw down upon yourself the " wrath of heaven, as you will do, should you so sensibly afflict a mother, who deserves the best from



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