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This manner of speaking, which is not supported either by the beauty of thoughts and expressions, by the boldness of figures, or by the pathos of the passions, but which has only an easy, simple, and natural air and turn in it, is the only one fit for reports, and at the same time not so easy to attain as may be imagined

I would willingly apply what Tully says of Scaurus's Eloquence, to that of one who makes reports. This orator tells us, that it did not suit the vivacity of pleading, but was very well adapted to the gravity of a senator, who was more considerable for his solidity and dignity, than for pomp and shew; and whose consummate prudence, joined to the highest sincerity, forced the auditors to give their consent. For, on this occasion, the reputation of a judge constitutes part of his Eloquence, and the idea we entertain of his integrity, adds great weight and authority to his discourse. [9] In Scauri oratione, sapientis hominis frecti, gravitas summa & naturalis quædam inerat auctoritas : non ut causam, sed ut testimonium dicere putares, cùm pro reo diceret. Hoc dicendi genus ad patrocinia mediocriter aptum videbatur ; ad senatoriam verò sententiam, cujus erat ille princeps, vel maximè : significabat enim non prudentium solùm, sed, quod maximè rem continebat, fidem.

It is therefore manifest, that those who would succeed in Reports, must carefully study the first, or simple kind of Eloquence; must enter thoroughly into the genius and taste of it, and copy from the best models ; must use the second species of Eloquence, viz. the flowery and mediate kind, very sparingly ; borrow only a few touches and beauties from it, with a wise circumspection, and that very rarely ; but as to the third kind (the sublime style) they must absolutely never make use of it.

The practice of the universities, especially in the classes of Rhetoric and Philosophy, may be very useful to young people, in preparing them for making reports. After, explaining one of Tully's orations, the pupils are obliged to give an account of it, to display its several parts, to distinguish the various proofs, and make remarks upon such passages as are strong or weak. In philosophy likewise, it is the custom, after reading some excellent treatises of that kind to them, such as Descartes and Malebranche, to discuss them thoroughly, to reduce arguments, which often are very long and abstracted, to some conciseness and perspicuity, to set the difficulties and objections in their full light, and to subjoin the solutions deduced from them. I have heard young lawyers own, that of all the university exercises this was the most advantageous, and of the greatest use to them

(9) Brut, n. 111, 112, G 3


in reports.



PLEADING. AS Demosthenes and Cicero arrived at perfection in Eloquence, they are the most proper to point out the path which youth must follow to attain it.

I shall therefore give a short relation of what we are told concerning their tender years, their education, the different exercises by which they prepared themselves for pleading, and what formed their greatest inerit, and established their reputation. Thus, these two great orators will serve at the same time for models and guides to youth. I do not however pretend to say, they must or can imitate them in every thing; but should they follow them only at a disiance, they would find great advantages from it.


[r] Demosthenes, having lost his father at the age of seven years, and falling into the hands of selfish and avaricious guardians, who were wholly bent upon [r] Plut, in Vitâ Demosth,

plundering plundering his estate, was not educated with the care which so excellent a genius as his deserved: not to mention, that the delicacy of his constitution, his ill state of health, and the excessive fondness of his mother, did not allow his masters to urge him in regard to his studies.

Demosthenes, hearing them one day speak of a ! famous cause that was to be pleaded, and which made a great noise in the city, importuned them very much to carry him with them to the Bar, in order to hear the pleadings. The orator, whose name was Callistratus, was heard with great attention; and having been very successful, was conducted home, in a ceremonious manner, amidst a croud of illustrious citizens, who expressed the highest satisfaction. Demosthenes was strongly affected with the honours which were paid the orator, and still more with the absolute and despotic power which Eloquence has over the mind. Demosthenes himself was sensible of its force; and, unable to resist its charms, he from that day devoted himself entirely lo it, and immediately laid aside every other pleasure and study.

Isocrates's school, [s] which formed so many great orators, was at that time the most famous in Athens, But whether the sordid avarice of Demosthenes's tutors hindered him froin improving under a master who made his pupils pay very dear [t] for their instruction, or whether the gentle or calm Eloquence of Isocrates was not then suitable to his taste, he was placed under Isæus [u], whose Eloquence was forcible and vehement. He found, however, an opportunity to procure the precepts of Rhetoric as taught by Isocrates. Plato indeed contributed most to the forming of Demosthenes. [2] And we plainly disco

[s] Isocrates . . . cujus è ludo, torrentior. Juven. tanquam ex equo Trojano, innu- [x] Illud jusjurandum per casos meri principes exierunt. 2. de in Marathone ac Salamine propug.

natores reipublicæ, satis manitesto [7] Ten minæ, or five hundred docet præceptorem ejus Platonem French livres.

fuisse. Quint. l. 12. 6. 10. [u] Sermo Promptus, & Ifeo

Orat. n. 94.

ver the noble and sublime style of the master, in the writings of the pupil.

His first essay of Eloquence was against his guardians, whom he obliged to restore part of his fortune. Encouraged by this good success, he ventured to speak before the people; but acquitted himself very ill on that occasion. Demosthenes had a faint voice, stammered in his speech, and had a very short breath; and yet his periods were so long, that he was often obliged to pause in order to take breath. He therefore was hissed by the whole audience, and thereupon went home quite dejected, and determined to abandon for ever a profession to which he imagined himself unequal. But one of his hearers, who perceived an excellent genius amidst his faults, and an Eloquence which came very near that of Pericles, encouraged him, by the strong remonstrances he made, and the salutary advice he gave him,

. He therefore appeared a second time before the people, but with no better success than before. As he was going home with down-cast eyes, and full of confusion, he was met by his friend Satyrus, one of the best actors of the age ; who, being informed of the cause of his chagrin, told Demosthenes, that the misfortune was not without remedy, nor so desperate as he imagined. He desired Demosthenes only to repeat sonie of Euripides or Sophocles's verses to him, which he immediately did. Satyrus repeated them after him, and gave them quite another grace, by the tone of voice, the gesture, and vivacity, with which he spoke them; so that Demosthenes observed they had a quite different effect. This made him sensible of what he wanted, and he applied himself to the attainment of it.

His endeavours to correct the natural impediment in his speech, and to perfect himself in utterance, of the value of which his friend had made him so sensible, seemed almost incredible; and to demonstrate, that indefatigable industry çap overcome all difficulties. [y] He stammered to such a degree, that he could not even pronounce certain letters; and among others, that which began the name of the art he studied; and his breath was so short, that he could not utter a whole period without stopping. However, Demosthenes overcame all these obstacles, by putting little pebbles into his mouth, and then repeating several verses one after another, without taking breath; and this even when he walked, and ascended very craggy and steep places : so that he at last could pronounce all the letters without hesitating, and speak the longest periods without once taking breath. But this was not all; [=] for he used to go to the sea-shore and speak his orations when the weather was most boisterous, in order to prepare himself, by the confused noise of the waves, for the uproar of the people, and the tumultuous cries of assemblies. He had a large mirror, which was his master for action; and before this he used to declaim, before he spoke in public. He was well paid for his trouble, since by this method he carried the art of declaiming to the highest perfection of which it was capable.

His application to study, in other respects, was equal to the pains he took to conquer his natural defects. He had a closet made under-ground, that he might be remote from noise and disturbance; and this was to be seen in Plutarch's time. There he shut himself up for months together, and had half his head

[y] Orator imitetur illum, cui tentiones vocis, & remissiones consine dubio summa vis dicendi con- tinerentur. Quietiam (ut memorie ceditur, Atheniensem Demosthe. prodituni est) conjectis in os calcu. nem, in quo tantum studium fuisse lis, summâ voce versus multos uno tantusque labor dicitur, ut primum spiritu pronunciare consuescebat i impedimenta naturæ diligentiå in. neque id consistens in loco, sed dustriâque superaret; cumque ita inambulans, atque adscensu ingrebalbus esset, ut ejus ipsius artis, diens arduo. j. de Orat. n. 260, cui studeret, primam literam non 261. posset dicere, perfecit meditando [z] Propter quæ idem ille tantus ut nemo planius eo locutus putare. amator secreti Demosthenes, in lit. tur. Deinde cùm spiritus ejus essettore, in quod se maximo cum sono angustior, tantum continendâ ani- fluctus illideret, meditans consuemå in dicendo est assecutus, ut unâ scebat concionum fremitus non excontinuatione verborum (id quod pavescere. Quint. I. 10. C. 13. scripta ejus declarant) binä сi con

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