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and flat, and the deep, narrow, and prominent-but between these every intermediate grade is found. As a rule, the more prominent a nose is the narrower it is; the flatter it is the broader it becomes. The depth increases with the prominence and narrows and diminishes with the flattening and broadening. The only exceptions occur among the American Indians and the Eskimo. The nose among the former is deep and prominent, but broad; among the latter it is flat and broad, but at the same time deep.

Collignon' has proposed the following quinary classifica. tion of the nasal index of the living :

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The subdivisions, ranging in fives, may serve, on account of the great extent of each group, to express certain differences. It is important, for example, to be able to distin.

1 R. Collignon, Rev. d'Anthrop. (3), iii., 1887, p. 8.

guish narrow, medium, or broad mesorhines; thus we may say the Eskimo are narrow or low' mesorhines, and the Annamites are medium mesorhines; or to avoid mistakes one may add the figure and say the Eskimo are mesorhine at seventy, and the Annamites are mesorhine at seventy-six.

We have at present an insufficient number of measurements to draw up a scheme for nasal indices which would have a decisive value in the classification of races. Collignon has, however, collected the following figures, which must serve as a basis for future researches ? :

........

NASAL INDEX OF THE LIVING.

(FROM COLLIGNON3.) Leptorhines........

......................... (-70) 100 French (very pure blond dolichocephalic type)..... 62.98

30 French (pure Mediterranean race Pyrénées Orientales), 65.06 184 Kabyles........................... .............. 66.5 19 Finns.......

...... 66.5 200 French (Auvergne and centre)....

.66.66 168 Finns (Mordwines). .... 1000 French ............ 100 French (Savoy and Rhône).... Tatars of the Crimea ......

.. 68.15 68 Parisians.

..... 69.4 120 Tunisians (Berber race II.)...

69.76 Mesorhines.......

.... (70-84) 1334 Tunisians. ......

... 70.23 10 Eskimo..

... 70.3 5 North American Indians......

.. 70.6 40 Tunisians (Berber race IV. of Ellez) .......

... 72.04 50 Tunisians (brachycephalic Berber race I.) .......... 72.5

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The term “low” refers to the index, and not to the height-measurement of the nose.

? See also the table on p. 86.
3 Rev. d'Anth. (3), iii., 1887, p. 16.

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8 Fuegians.......

... 74.8 26 Kalmuks.............. 40 Kara-Kirghis of Semiret-chensk.

.. 74.9 6 Tziganes (“ Gypsies ") ........

75.4 9 Red-skins...

75.6 7 Sinhalese........

75.7 113 Tunisians (Berber race III. of Djerid)

76.62 52 Annamites ....

76.8 5 Chinese. 4 Araucans ..

80.6 3 Northern Mongols. 5 South Americans... Platyrhines.

(85+) 7 Senegal Negroes......

87.9 4 Solomon Islanders .........

89.1 13 Polynesians......

89.8 24 African Negroes (casts).......

.. 92.2 1 New Caledonians and New Hebrideans 44 Tunisian Negroes............

.. 96.28 5 Hottentots and Bushmen.....

.. 97.2 4 Fijians..................

.. 97.7 4 Bushmen ..

...101.7 52 Zambesi Negroes......

.....101.5 4 Australians......

.......101.7 11 Australians....

.........107.6 7 Tasmanians......

..........108.9 A consideration of this table shows that as a whole the means of the white races range from 62 to 76, the yellow races (including the American races) from 69 to 81, the Afri. can Negroes from 87 to 101, and the Melanesians (or Oceanic Negroes) from 93 to 109. In other words the white races are mainly leptorhine, the yellow races mainly and American races entirely mesorhine, and the black races of Africa, the Western Pacific, and of Australasia solely platyrhine.

In a previous chapter I have already drawn attention to

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the fact that among certain peoples one can distinguish what may be termed a coarse type and a fine type.

Maspero, in his interesting Dawn of Civilisation,' thus graphically describes these two types among the ancient Egyptians:

“ The highest type of Egyptian was tall and slender, with something that was proud and imperious in the carriage of his head and in his whole bearing. He had wide and full shoulders, muscular arms, a long, fine hand, slightly developed hips, and sinewy legs. The head is rather short, the face oval, the forehead somewhat retreating. The eyes are wide and fully opened, the cheek-bones not too marked, the nose fairly prominent, and either straight or aquiline. The mouth is long and the lips full. The hair was inclined to be wavy.

“ The common type was squat, dumpy, and heavy. The chest and shoulders seem to be enlarged at the expense of the pelvis and hips, to such an extent as to make the want of proportion between the upper and lower parts of the body startling and ungraceful. The skull is long, somewhat retreating, and slightly flattened on the top; the features are coarse, and as though carved in flesh by great strokes of the roughing-out chisel. Small frænated eyes, a short nose, flanked by widely distended nostrils, round cheeks, a square chin, thick, but not curling lips—this unattractive and ludicrous physiognomy, sometimes animated by an expression of cunning which recalls the shrewd face of an old French peasant, is often lighted up by gleams of gentleness and of melancholy good nature.

“The external characteristics of these two principal types, whose endless modifications are to be found on the ancient monuments, may still be seen among the living."

An analogous difference may be noticed among the Japanese. Not only has this appealed to the scientific mind of

'G. Maspero, The Dawn of Civilisation : Egypt and Chaldæa, Eng. trans., 1894, p. 47.

Dr. Bälz, but it has attracted the attention of native artists; and one may see, as in a picture by Torii Kiyonaga, a mother of the fine type, watching a coarse-featured servant

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FIG. 12. Heads of Japanese Men of the Fine and Coarse Type ; from

Hovorka, after Bälz.

feeding the baby, who is also depicted with a nose of the type of its mother's. The celebrated school of the Torii, who flourished in the eighteenth century, invented colourprinting. In a picture by Outmaro, a Japanese nobleman is paying a ceremonial visit, and on the verandah is seen his low-visaged bearer, whose degraded countenance and squat nose with its broad nostril offer a marked contrast to the oval face and delicate nose of his master. Peeping from behind a screen are the faces of three girls; two of the fine type belong to daughters of the house, and between them is their rounder-faced maid.

Nowhere has the distinction between the fine and coarse type of nose been more fully studied than in India, and the results of these investigations are so interesting and important that I shall deal with them in considerable detail.

In 1891 and 1892, Mr. H. H. Risley published four volumes on The Tribes and Castes of Bengal, which embodied an immense mass of anthropometric data and ethnographic

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