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marks the root of the nose, and which is about the level of a line drawn from the centre of the pupil of one eye to that of the other, to the under part of the chin. Should there be two furrows, as is often the case, measure from between them.'
“ Upper Face Length.–From root of nose to the interval between the two central front teeth at their roots.
“ Face Breadth.-Maximum breadth of face between the bony projections in front of the ears.
“ Interocular Breadth.-Width between the internal angles of the eyes. While this is being measured the subject should shut his eyes.
“ Bigonial Breadth.—Breadth of face at the outer surface of the angles of the lower jaw below the ears.
“ Nose Length.–From the furrow at root of nose to the angle between the nose and the upper lip in the middle line.'
“ Breadth of Nose.—Measured horizontally across the nostrils at the widest part, but without compressing the nostrils.
" Height of Head. —The head should be so held that the eyes look straight forward to a point at the same level as themselves, i. l., the plane of vision should be exactly horizontal. 'The rod of the anthropometer should be held vertically in front of the face of the subject, and the upper straight arm should be extended as far as possible and placed along the middle line of the head; the shorter lower arm should be pushed up to the lower surface of the chin. When measured with the square the depending bar must be held vertically in front of the face (with the assistance of the spirit-level or plumb-line), and the small set-square passed up this arm from below in such a manner that its horizontal upper edge will come into contact with the lower contour of the chin. The distance between the lower edge of the horizontal bar of the square and the upper edge of the set-square can be read off, and this will be the maximum height of the head.
“ Height of Cranium.—The head being held in precisely the same manner as in measuring the height of the head, the instrument is rotated to the left side of the head, its upper bar still
See special instructions for taking nasal measurements, pp. 366-368.
resting on the crown, and the recording arm (or the set-square) is pointed to the centre of the line of attachment of the small projecting cartilage in front of the ear-hole."
Note.—It is essential that these rules should be strictly followed in order to secure accuracy. All measurements must be made in millimetres. If possible, the subject's weight should be obtained, and recorded in the place set apart for remarks. The observer is recommended to procure Notes and Queries on Anthropology, 2d edition, from the Anthropological Institute, 3 Hanover Square, London, W. Net price, 35. 6d.
I have printed the schedule verbatim, with the exception of the addition of the line relating to the length of time the subject's mother's people have resided in that particular district.
The vagueness of the question, “ What district do your father's (or mother's) people come from ?” is better for our purpose than any more precise question would be, as it gives us just the information we require. For example, if with specious exactitude we asked a subject where he was born, and he replied “ Cambridge," then where his parents were born, it might be “ Cambridge” for both; whereas his grandparents, on both sides, might have been Northcountry folk, and their forbears for many generations back. Now mere residence in Cambridge for two generations would not alter a Northumberland and Durham ancestry, provided, as we assume in this case, that no local intermixture had taken place. People usually know, in a general sort of way, where their“ people” lived some generations ago, and our apparently vague question gets directly at this information.
The“ surname of your father" is generally a superfluous question, but owing to some local peculiarities of naming people it is as well to retain it.
The schedule is printed on paper of foolscap size, with the observations on one side and the directions on the other. These are cumbersome in the field, and as field work should be undertaken only by those who have already had some experience, or, at all events, by those who have mastered the technique, there is no need to issue the instructions on each sheet. I would therefore suggest that cards be employed about six inches in length and four inches in breadth, which might be printed as on opposite page.
Similar schedules to these, but with the addition of some physical tests and with some minor alterations, are in use in the Anthropological Laboratory of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, and in that of Trinity College, Dublin.
In Cambridge, the head height from the level of the earhole is alone taken; for field work it is advisable, if possible, to take the total height of the head as detailed in the schedule.
Head Measurements.—The height of the cranium is the same as the altitudinal auricular radius of the card used in Ireland. The schedule explains how this may be obtained by projection, as it is termed: but in Ireland we use a modification of Busk's craniometer that was introduced by Professor Cunningham,' by means of which we take the radii from the level of the ear-holes to the greatest vertical height of the head, to the nasion, and to the insertion of the upper front teeth in the gums (alveolus). This instrument is very convenient to use, and gives accurate measurements; it is made so as to take to pieces, and is therefore quite portable. A further advantage is that analogous measurements can be made on skulls; the disadvantage is the dislike some people have to anything being inserted in their ears. An extended experience in Ireland shows that very few refuse pointblank to the instrument being used, and most make no objection whatever.
"C. R. Browne, “Some New Anthropometrical Instruments,” Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. (3), ii., 1892, p. 397.
There is no need for me to say more about the cephalic index or the method of obtaining it; but it is desirable that the question should be determined of the ratio of the cephalic index (that is, the index of the living head) to the cranial index (or the index of the skull). This matter has received the attention of many anthropologists, and has recently been discussed by Dr. W. 2. Ripley.' Most anthropologists follow Broca, and add two units to the cranial index to obtain the cephalic index; thus a skull having a length-breadth index of 78 would correspond to a cephalic index of 80 in the living subject. Tappeiner, in the Tyrol, finds differences from 1 to 5 units; Mantegazza allows 3 units; Zampa allows 2.5 units; Boas allows 1.4 for American Indians; Livi allows 1.3 for Italians; Mies allows I.IT for men and .85 for women, with a tendency to increase among brachycephals; Topinard allows ļof a unit; Weisbach and Zuckerhandl allow only it of a unit; whereas Virchow says no correction is needed, as the two are practically equal. Ripley believes that the difference is nearer 1.5 than 2 units.'
The German system of craniometry, taken as it is from an artificial base, does not correspond to the maximum length as taken directly by French, English, and American anthropologists, and so tends to increase the length-breadth index (by diminishing the length) as compared with the French.
To reduce the German ratio to that of the French, one unit must be added to the German cranial indices (as, for example, in the measurements of Frisian crania made by Virchow and by Broca). If two units be added to the French cranial index to obtain the cephalic index, only one unit
1 William Z. Ripley, “Notes et Documents pour la Construction d'une Carte de l'Indice Céphalique en Europe,” L'Anthropologie, vii., 1896, p. 513.
? Loc. cit., p. 519.