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these statistics, such as market-days, village flower-shows, local festivals and sports, the “ Hinds' hirings ” of Northumberland, i. e., those days when the farm labourers of both sexes come into the towns to hire out themselves for the following year. When groups are being photographed, or individuals measured, a small crowd generally collects, and one of the party can be told off to unobtrusively make notes of the colours of the eyes and hair of onlookers.

The markings on the cards should always consist of short, firm strokes (dots are less satisfactory); it is best never to put numbers. Each group of cards should be kept in labelled envelopes. A little method and system is a great saving of time in the end, and the results are more likely to be trustworthy if system is made into habit.

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Index of Nigrescence, 18.57. The above table is an example of one way in which the results can be tabulated; a similar table should be made

1 A. C. Haddon and C. R. Browne, “ The Ethnography of the Aran Islands, County Galway,” Proceedings Royal Irish Academy (3), ii., 1893, p. 783.

for Females, Boys, and Girls. These can be combined in various ways afterwards.

It is occasionally a matter of local belief-or it may come out in the observations—that the inhabitants of one village, or of an island, are lighter or darker, as the case may be, or vary in some other way from the neighbouring locality. All such supposed or real variations should be worked out on special tables. It is well not to use the recording cards for more than one occasion or for more than one village.

2. Anthropometry for British Ethnography. I have kept the instructions for collecting the hair and eye colours distinct from the other ethnographical data, as these can so readily be made anywhere by anybody, whereas the following data, for the most part, require the employment of instruments and a little preparatory training.

The schedule on pp. 356, 357 is that drawn up by the Ethnographical Survey Committee of the British Association. Copies of this, for field observation, can be obtained from the Secretary of the Committee, E. S. Hartland, Esq., Highgarth, Gloucester.

Directions for Measurement. Instrument Required for these Measurements. The 'Traveller's Anthropometer,' manufactured by Aston & Mander, 61 Old Compton Street, London, W.C.; price, £3 35. complete; without 2-metre steel measuring-tape and box footpiece, £2 1os. With this instrument all the measurements can be taken. In a permanent laboratory it will be found convenient to have a fixed graduated standard for measuring the height, or a scale affixed to a wall. For field work a tape measure may be temporarily suspended to a rigid vertical support, with the zero just touching the ground or floor. A 2-metre tape, a pair of folding callipers, a folding square, all of which are graduated in millimetres, and a small set-square can be obtained from Aston & Mander for £ 1 6s.; with this small equipment all the necessary measurements can be taken.

Height Standing.—The subject should stand perfectly upright, with his back to the standard or fixed tape, and his eyes directed horizontally forwards. Care should be taken that the standard or support for the tape is vertical. The stature may be measured by placing the person with his back against a wall to which a metre scale has been affixed. The height is determined by placing a carpenter's square or a large set-square against the support in such a manner that the lower edge is at right angles to the scale; the square should be placed well above the head, and then brought down till its lower edge feels the resistance of the top of the head. The observer should be careful that the height is taken in the middle line of the head. If the subject should object to take off his boots, measure the thickness of the bootheel, and deduct it from stature indicated in boots.

Height Sitting.–For this the subject should be seated on a low stool or bench, having behind it a graduated rod or tape with its zero level with the seat; he should sit perfectly erect, with his back well in against the scale. Then proceed as in measuring the height standing. The square should be employed here also if the tape against a wall is used.

Length of Cranium.-Measured with callipers from the most prominent part of the projection between the eyebrows (glabella) to the most distant point at the back of the head in the middle line. Care should be taken to keep the end of the callipers steady on the glabella by holding it there with the fingers, while the other extremity is searching for the maximum projection of the head behind.

Breadth of Cranium.—The maximum breadth of head, which is usually about the level of the top of the ears, is measured at right angles to the length. Care must be taken to hold the instrument so that both its points are exactly on the same horizontal level.

Face Length.—This is measured from the slight furrow which Place...




EYES: (1) blue ; (2) light grey ; (3) dark grey ; (4) green ; (5) light brown ; (6) dark brown. SHAPE OF FACE: (1) long and narrow ; (2) medium ; (3) short and broad.

(a) cheek-bones inconspicuous; (6) cheek-bones prominent.
PROFILE OF NOSE: Compare with outline figures at foot, and give the number with which the nose under ex-

amination most closely corresponds.
LIPS: (1) thin : (2) medium ; (3) thick.
EARS: (A) flat ; (B) outstanding ; (a) coarse ; (6) finely moulded.
LOBES OF EARS: (1) absent ; (2) present ; (a) attached ; (6) detached.

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