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afford a more accurate and minute means of analysis, and they bring out a number of very suggestive facts that are lost in the synthetic maps based on the military schedules.
The maps based on the military schedules accord with ethnological history in exhibiting a large proportion of lightcoloured hair in the regions most subject to invasion and colonisation and of dark-coloured hair in the far west.
Taking the four kingdoms, their order from light to dark is as follows:
Connaught (with 70.6 per cent.) ranks second to Ulster (with 73.4 per cent.) as to lightness of eyes, and has more dark hair than any province of Ireland or of Great Britain except Argyle. This is in agreement with the feature that strikes travellers in the west of Ireland, the preponderance of dark brown hair combined with grey or blue-grey eyes.'
In England most of the “mixed brown type,” as it is called—that is, brown, hazel, or “ black” eyes, with brown (chestnut), dark brown, or black hair-occurs in Dorset, Wilts, Cornwall, Gloucestershire, the Welsh Marches, South Wales, Bucks, and Herts.
For the sake of clearness I will take a few counties of England only, and give the conclusions to which Dr. Beddoe has arrived from his studies of their ethnography.
“Lincolnshire, for example, is supposed to be a particularly Teutonic county. Whether Lindum Colonia was destroyed by
Cf. a paper recently published by Dr. Beddoe “On Complexional Differ. ences between the Irish with Indigenous and Exotic Surnames."— Fourn. Anth. Inst., xxvii., 1897, p. 164.
the Angles we do not know ; perhaps, as it kept its name and situation, it fared better than most Romano-British towns, and
retained more of its ancient population ; but certainly Lincolnshire received a large colony of Angles, who divided it into a
Fig. 4. Map Showing the Distribution of the Excess of Pure Blond over Pure Dark
Type in England, Based upon Military Schedules ; after Beddoe.
great number of hundreds, and who were subsequently overlaid by a heavy stratum of Danes, as the place-names testify. The inhabitants have the tall and bulky frame which is generally believed to be Anglo-Danish, though the nature of the soil and other conditions may have to do with it. Lincolnshire stands third in all England on the blond scale as tested by the index of nigrescence.”
Dr. Beddoe's personal observations in the county indicate a moderate proportion of dark eyes and a great deal of light, or lightish brown hair, with a low index of nigrescence; these observations are confirmed respectively by the maps (Figs. 2 and 3). The modern population of Lincoln are a fair and handsome people, with regular features; blue-eyed, says Professor Phillips—but Dr. Beddoe calls them blue or light hazel; the latter hue is very common at Boston. The civic population there, though not quite so strikingly fair as in the surrounding peasantry, are much more so than in most parts of the islands; they have all the characteristics of pure Saxo-Frisians, and are hardly distinguishable from the frequenters of Antwerp market.' Their index of nigrescence is the lowest Dr. Beddoe has met with in any considerable town in Britain.
From Lincoln to Nottingham, along the Vale of the Trent, the same breed of men prevails. Mr. D. Mackintosh, who has carefully studied the features, makes the leading points of his Danish type a long face, high cheekbones, with a sudden sinking-in above on each side of the forehead, high and long nose, head elevated behind, reddish hair. There is a traditional attribution of red hair to the old Danish invaders in some parts of the country, but Dr. Beddoe does not believe “ the colour is common in Lincolnshire nowadays. The high, finely-formed nose and prominence of the superciliary ridges, yet with fairly arched ? Races of Britain, p. 145.
? Loc. cit., p. 252.
MILITARY STATISTICS.–From the Hue and Cry (after Beddoe), p. 190.
Dark, or | Dark Brown.
Black. ö to learn í Light Brown. to | Total.
-4.7 28 56 30.5 13.9 150
| 3 | 10|29| 20 971 35.5
4 2 18 5 3 32 40
10.6 19.3 45.335.3 21.3 150 2 | 27 39 18 ... 86 57.3... 11 21 26 6 64
29 72.5...... 5 4
2 12 36 35 4 89 44.5 Devonshire ..... 10.8 23.6 46.8 33.6 18.4 250
2 11 38 33 13 97 38.8 Cornwall .............. 20.6 18.642 44.6 24.6 150 1
2 80 53.3... 3 30 29 8 70 46.6