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" WILL WE HAVE CHOLERA HERE THIS YEAR,
DOCTOR?'' We have very little hesitation in saying that the medical men of this country are getting somewhat tired of this interrogatory, that is being propounded many times day by day. We can only make, as we have been doing since September last, our stereotyped reply: No, not unless somebody is at fault.
We ought not to have it. We cannot afford to have it.
Granted, that with the large influx of foreign visitors during this the Columbian year, its existence at the coming on of winter to a somewhat alarming extent in some of the large parts of the European Continent, with which we are in close and almost daily communication, and other factors of a possibility, we are enabled to place on the other side of the balance sheet a much more satisfactory and reliable knowledge of its modes of travel and the means of prevention than at any previous time. The little flurry at New York that caused a great degree of uneasiness last year was productive of much good in showing, to some extent, certain practical measures by which it could be and was held at bay.
With the advent of hot weather now at hand, there has so far been no marked re-development of the disease in those continental cities where it prevailed so alarmingly last year; and although, during the spring months there were some cases, they have gradually become less and less frequent instead of increasing in numbers. The new water supply of Hamburg, and the thorough sanitary measures to which that city and others have been subjected, has prevented so far a recurrence of the disease in epidemic form. This is decidedly encouraging, and is marked evidence that thorough cleanliness and a proper observance of sanitary measures can prevent the dread results of so dire a plague. Many American cities and towns have been induced,
by the fear of cholera, to “ get a move on all measures of san. itation, that ought to be the regulation standard. We make the following extract from the report of the able Secretary to the April meeting of our own State Board of Health :
“One of the most noticeable signs of sanitary improvement in Tennessee is the attention given to the water supply by many of our leading towns during the past year or two. The city of Clarksville has recently purchased the plant from a company with the view of enlarging the works. Murfreesboro has now in operation works owned by a private company. Union City, Pulaski and Columbia are also thus supplied. Gallatin is working up to extension of limits and water-works. Dyersburg, Covington and other towns have recently obtained power to issue bonds for sewers and other improvements, all having a beneficial influ. ence on health.
• In East Tennessee there are many new and growing towns, such as Johnson City, which are quite up to the times in public spirit and progress. A noted example is Harriman, which recently voted, with only two dissenting voices, to bond the city for $110,000 for water-works, electric light, and sewers.
“Greeneville, Athens, Cleveland and Bristol are instances of old towns which have recently almost been made over again.
• In fact a marked feature in Tennessee at present is this awakening of public spirit and cooperative activity throughout the State. In communities without corporate charters, the end is attained by voluntary sanitary associations, as in Dickson and Erin. These, acting under the sanction of law and backed by public opinion, have great power for good, as has been fully attested in various British and American cities. In New York city the Ladies' Association, a permanent body composed of representative women, has accomplished results which have surprised their own neighbors and gained the applause of stran. gers. All friends of sanitary progress welcome this cooperation; for healthy and beautiful homes are naturally of more moment to women and children than to men."
Yes, there are many other diseases besides cholera bred of filth, and the benefits of thorough sanitation will always be accurately demonstrated. By careful attention to the cardinal principles of sanitation-good water, good food, pure air and cleanliness of
person and locality—if the germs of cholera succeed in eluding the vigilance of those at the outposts, they will fall in sterile soil; and these measures are not only justifiable and imperative now, but at all times.
AN ACT TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES, AND TO FIX THE PENALTY
FOR THE VIOLATION OF THIS ACT. SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That whenever any case of small-pox, yellow fever, cholera, or other communicable disease exist (except it shall not embrace any venereal disease, such as gonorrhea, syphilis), or is suspected to exist in any household, it shall be the duty of the head of said household to immediately notify the municipal or county health authorities of the town or county wherein such disease or diseases exist; or are supposed to exist.
SEC. 2. Be it further enacted, That whenever any physician, surgeon, or practitioner of medicine shall know or suspect that a person or persons whom he has been called to visit, or who has been brought to him for examination, is infected with any of the aforementioned diseases, he shall immediately notify the health authorities of the town or county in which said diseased person or persons are found.
SEC. 3. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of all municipal or county health authorities aforesaid, without delay, upon receiving such notice as is above provided for, to imnediately proceed to carry out such rules and regulations as the State Board of Health may prescribe, having for their object the prevention and restriction of the disease or diseases aforementioned in Section 1 of this Act.
Said local health authorities shall further, upon the receipt of said notice of existing or suspected disease aforesaid, notify the Board of Education of such municipality, if the case exist in a town, or if in the country, the County Superintendent of Public Instruction, of the facts in every such case, giving name, age and sex of the individual so sick, name of disease, street and number of house, if in a town, or otherwise sufficiently designate the house if in the rural districts, and said public school authorities shall not allow any pupil to attend any public school from said house while any inmate of same is sick of small-pox or other communicable disease, or during the period of two weeks after the death, recovery, or removal of such sick person.
SEC. 4. Be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty of each and every municipal or county board of health in this State, upon receiving information of the existence or suspected existence in their respective jurisdictions of any case of small-pox, cholera, yellow fever, scarlet fever, diphtheria, or other disease dangerous to the public health, to immediately notify the State Board of Health of the fact, and, in addition, on the first of each and every month make a written report, and forward the same without delay to said board, of all communicable diseases occurring in their respective jurisdictions for the month last preceding, setting forth in said report, in separate columns, the age, color, and sex of the individual, name of each disease, number of cases, number of deaths, together with such other information as said State Board of Health may desire.
SEC. 5. Be it further enacted, That any individual or individuals mentioned in this Act, who shall willfully neglect or refuse to comply with either of the above provisions, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be fined not less than ten nor more than one hundred dollars, or confined in the county jail for a period of not more than three months, one or both, in the discretion of the court.
Sec. 6. Be it further enacted, That all Acts or parts of Acts in conflict with this Act be and they are hereby repealed, aud that this Act take effect from and after its passage, the public welfare requiring it.
Passed April 8, 1893, and approved April 10, 1893.
AN ACT TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES AMONG THE DOMESTIC ANI
MALS IN THE STATE OF TENNESSEE.
SECTION 1. Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the State of Tennessee, That upon the nomination of the State Board of Health of a qualified person, resident of the State, and who is a graduate of some regular and established veterinary college,
and skilled in the art of veterinary science, the Governor shall appoint and commission the same Veterinary Surgeon, whose term of office shall be for five years from date of appointment, or until his successor shall have been appointed and duly qualified; said State Veterinary Surgeon to have such annual compensation as may be determined and agreed upon by the said Board of Health; provided, that the said State Board of Health shall have the power to remove said State Veterinary Surgeon when, in their judgment, the public welfare requires it.
SEC. 2. Be it further enacted, That the said State Veterinary Surgeon shall, before entering upon the discharge of his duties, take an oath or affirmation as provided by law in the case of other State officers, and shall immediately execute a bond to the State of Tennessee in the sum of ($10,000) ten thousand dollars, and with such security as shall be approved by the said State Board of Health, and file the same in the office of the Secretary of State, conditioned for the faithful performance of the duty imposed upon said State Veterinary Surgeon as may be prescribed by said State Board of Health.
Sec. 3. Be it further enacted, That the State Board of Health shall have the general supervision of all communicable diseases among domestic animals within, or that may be in transit through the State, and they are empowered to establish quarantine against any animal or animals thus diseased, or that have been exposed to others thus diseased, whether within or without the State, and may make rules and regulations against the spread and for the suppression of said disease or diseases, as in their judgment may seem necessary and proper; and in the enforcement of such rules and regulations said State Board of Health shall have the power to call on any one of the peace ofllcers, whose duty it shall be to give all the assistance in their power.
Sec. 4. Be it further enacted, That any person who willfully hinders, obstructs, or otherwise disregards or evades such quarantine as said State Board of Health may declare, or violate any rule or regulation they shall make in attempting to stamp out or restrict the spread of any disease or diseases aforementioned, or who shall resist any peace officer, acting under said Board of Health, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction shall be fined not less than fifty dollars ($50) nor more than five