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Lesson.

Page.

101. Crustaceous and Molluscous Animals. Shells, 228

102. Vermes and Zoophytes. Leech. Polypes, 230

103. Existence of the Deity,

232

104. Political Economy. Progress of Civilization, 233

105. Property, unequal Distribution of,

235

106. Division of Labour,

237

107. Agriculture, -the Strength of Nations,

239

108. Commerce and Manufactures,

240

109. Money,--its abundance, not the cause, but the con-

sequence of Wealth,

242

110 Ship-building and Navigation,

244

111. Architecture, Advantages of, -Orders of,

246

112. Constitution of the United States, Sketch of, 248

113. Excellence of our Republican Government, 251

114. Intelligence of the People a Means of Safety to

the Government,

252

115. The government of England. King. Parliament, 254

1.1.6. America : an Extract from Bryant's Poem of the

Ages,

257

117. Structure of the Human Body,

258

118. Structure of the Human Body, (continued,) 260

119. The Human Voice, wonderful Mechanism of, 262

120. - Structure of the Ear,

263

121. Music, Pleasures of, -Ear for,

265

122. Painting. Cartoons of Raphael,

267

123. Sculpture. Statuary. Casting in Plaster of Paris, 270

124. The Love of Nature,

271

125. The Importance of Natural Philosophy,

272

126. Mythology,

274

127. Account of the Principal Heathen Gods,

275

128. Account of the Principal Heathen Goddesses, 278

129. Harmony of Science and Christianity,

280

130. The Influence of an Early Taste for Reading, 281

131. The Mechanical Wonders of a Feather,

282

132. Art of Making Pins,

284

133. Clouds and Rain,

285

134. Invention and Progress of Printing,

287

135. Hope, Influence of,

288

THE

LITERARY AND SCIENTIFIC

CLASS BOOK.

LESSON 1.

Intellectual Pleasures.

Evolv'ed, unfolded, unrolled, thrown out,

Transcen'dent, excellent, surpassing others. WHEN we think of what man is, not in his faculties only, but in his intellectual acquisitions, and of what he must have been, on his entrance into the world, it is difficult for us to regard this knowledge and absolute ignorance as states of the same mind. - It seems to us alniost as if we had to consider a spiritual creation or transformation, as wondrous as if, in contemplating the material universe, we were to strive to think of the whole system of suns and planets, as evolved from a mere particle of matter, or rising from nothing, as when originally created. We believe that they were so created, and we know that man, comprehensive as his acquirements are, must have set out in his intellectual career from absolute ignorance; but how difficult is it for us to form any accurate conception of what we thus undoubtingly believe! The mind, which is enriched with as many sciences as there are classes of existing things in the universe, which our organs are able to discern-the mind, which is skilled in all the languages of all the civilized nations of the globe, and which has fixed and treasured in its own remembrance, the beauties of every work of transcendent genius, which age afier age

has added to the stores of antiquity--this mind, we know well, was once as ignorant as the dullest and feeblest of those minds, which scarcely know enough, even to wondur at its superiority.

That pleasure attends the sublime operations of intellect in the disco very of truth, or the splendid creations of faney,

2

INTELLECTUAL PLEASURES.

or the various arts to which science and imagination are subservient, every one will readily admit, to whom these operations are familiar. But the great masters in science and art are few, and the pleasure which they feel in their noblest inventions, therefore, would be but a slight element in the sum of human happiness. The joy, however, is not confined to those, who have the pride of contemplating these great results as their own. It exists to all who have the humbler capacity of contemplating them merely as results of human genius. It is delightful to learn, though another may have been the discoverer; and perhaps the pleasure which a mind truly ardent for knowledge, feels in those early years, in which the new world of science is opened, as it were to its view, and every step, and almost every glance affords some new accession of admiration and power, may not be surpassed even by the pleasure which it is afterwards to feel, when it is not to be the receiver of the wisdom of others, but itself the enlightener of the wise.—BROWN.

Call now to mind what high, capacious powers
Lie folded up in man; how far beyond
The praise of mortals, may the eternal growth
Of nature to perfection half divine,
Expand the blooming soul: what pity then
Should sloth's unkindly fogs depress to earth
Her tender blossom ; choke the streams of life,
And blast her spring ! far otherwise designed
Almighty wisdom; nature's happy cares
The obedient heart far otherwise incline.
Witness the sprightly joy when aught unknown
Strikes the quick sense, and wakes each active power
To brisker measures; witness the neglect
Of all familiar objects, though beheld
With transport once; the fond attentive gaze
Of
young

astonishment; the sober zeal
Of age, commenting on prodigious things.
For such the bounteous providence of heaven,
In every breast implanting this desire
Of objects new and strange, to urge us on
With unremitted labour to pursue
Those sacred stores that wait the ripening soul,
In truth's exhaustless bosom.

AKENSIDE.

MENTAL IMPROVEMENT.

LESSON 2.

Mental Improvement.
Paraphrase, to explain in many words.

Di'agram, delineation of a geometrical figure. I No man is obliged to learn and know every thing, for it is utterly impossible; yet all persons are under some obligation to improve their own understanding. Universal ignorance or infinite errors will overspread the mind which is neglected, and lies without cultivation. Skill in the sciences is indeed the business and profession but of a small part of mankind; but there are many others placed in such a rank in the world, as allows them much leisure and large opportunities to cultivate their reason, and enrich their minds with various knowledge.

The common duties and benefits of society, which belong to every man living, and even our necessary relations to a family, a neighbourhood, or government, oblige all persons whatsoever to use their reasoning powers, upon a thousand occasions; every hour of life calls for some regular exercise of our judgment as to times and things, persons and actions; without a prudent and discreet determination in matters before us, we shall be plunged into perpetual errors in our conduct. Now that which should always be practised, must at some time be learned.

Besides, every son and daughter of Adam has a most important concern in the affairs of a life to come, and therefore it is a matter of the lrighest moment for every one to understand, to judge, and to reason right about the things of religion. It is vain for any to say, we have no leisure or time for it. The daily intervals of time, and vacancies from necessary labour, together with the one day in seven in the Christian world, allow sufficient opportunity for this, if men would but apply themselves to it with half so much zeal and diligence as they do to the trifles and amusements of this life; and it would turn to infinitely better account.

There are five eminent means or methods whereby the mind is improved in the knowledge of things; and these are observation, reading, instruction by lectures, conversation, and meditation, which last, in a peculiar manner, is called study.

MENTAL IMPROVEMENT.

Observation is the notice that we take of all accurrences in human life, whether they are sensible or intellectual, whether relating to persons or things, to ourselves or others. It is this that furnishes us, even from our infancy, with a rich variety of ideas and propositions, words and phrases. All those things which we see, hear or feel, which we perceive by sense or consciousness, or which we know in a direct manner, with scarce exercise of our reflecting faculties or our reasoning powers, may be included under the general name of observation. There is no time or place, no transactions, occurrences, or engagements in life, which exclude us from this method of improving the mind.

Reading is that means of knowledge, whereby we acquaint ourselves with the affairs, actions, and thoughts of the living and the dead, in the most remote nations, and most distant ages. By reading, we learn not only the actions and sentiments of different nations and ages, but transfer to ourselves the knowledge and improvements of the most learned men, the wisest and best of mankind. It is another advantage of reading, that we may review what we have read; we may consult the page again and again, and meditate on it at successive periods in our retired hours. Unless a reader has an uncommon and most retentive memory, there is scarcely any book or chapter worth reading once that is not worthy of second perusal.

Public or private lectures are such verbal instructions as are given by a teacher while the learners attend in silence. An instructer, when he paraphrases and explains other authors, can mark out the precise point of difficulty or controversy, and unfold it. When he teaches us natural philosophy, or most parts of mathematical learning, he can convey to our senses those notions, with which he would furnish our minds. He can make the experiments before our eyes. He can describe figures and diagrams, point to the lines and angles, and by sensible means make out the demonstration in a more intelligible manner.

Conversation is that method of improving our minds, wherein by mutual discourse and inquiry we learn the sentiments of others, as well as communicate our own. By friendly conference, not only the doubts which arise in the mind upon any subject of discourse are easily proposed and solved, but the very difficulties we meet with in books and

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