« ForrigeFortsæt »
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by
JAMES B. GREENOUGH,
in the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.
J. S. CUSHING & Co., PRINTERS, BOSTON.
HE author, in preparing this Vocabulary to accompany his
Virgil, or for use with other editions, has had two things in view: first, to supply as much information as was possible in regard to the history and uses of the Latin words, so that the book should not be a mere key to translate by, but should also furnish means for the study of the language itself; and, secondly, at the same time to give or suggest a suitable English expression for every passage.
In every language which is to be rendered into another, there may be said to be three classes of meanings to the words: first, the etymological meaning, i.e., the idea that a word presented when it was first formed or used; second, the literal meanings, i.e., the ideas which a word came to have to those who used it in its later development; and, third, the foreign meaning or translation, i.e., the word. expressing the nearest equivalent idea in the language into which one wishes to translate. Of course these three classes of meanings may happen to coincide; a word may not have deviated essentially from its primitive force, and this same force may happen to belong to some similar word in the other language. It is, however, oftener otherwise; words have often diverged very far and in many directions from the primitive conception underlying them, and it is rare that a word in one language exactly covers the group of ideas which belongs to the nearest corresponding word in another; and this is especially true in poetry. The author has aimed to keep these classes of meanings separate so far as space would permit. For
this purpose the etymological meaning, where it may not be directly deduced from the etymology, has been given first in a parenthesis. Then follow the literal meanings, as nearly as possible in the supposed order of development, with such hints as could be given of the connection of ideas. Such renderings as seemed to be necessary in English, but which did not accord with the Latin conception, have been given in their connection as examples. In this way it is hoped the pupil or teacher may find a good English expression without losing sight of the Latin conception, which is, after all, the most important of the three classes of meanings.
Further, an expression rendered by a bare representation of its ultimate mechanical equivalent, often loses not only all its poetry, but also the whole conception as it presented itself to the mind of the original speaker.
Take such a case as fors dicta refutet; the poet undoubtedly means "may fate avert the calamity I suppose," but he is far from saying so, nor could refuto to a Roman convey any such idea. What he does say is," May fate annul (make void) my words," i.e., contradict, or prove false, the supposition which I make. For, in ancient times, it must be remembered any supposition or suggestion of calamity was regarded as ominous, and as tending to bring about the calamity supposed; a force which vaguely underlies the expression in English, “Oh, don't speak of it." It can hardly be hoped that the desired result has been attained in all cases, but the idea has been constantly kept in view. Nor is it supposed that the expressions given are the only suitable ones, but it is hoped that they will be found suggestive.
In regard to the etymology, which occupies more space than is usual in such books, the author has wished to show not merely the kinship of words loosely, but, if possible, the precise manner in which one word has been formed from another. The fact is often overlooked that the Latin language, as we have it, is the growth of many centuries, during which forms have grown up and given
rise to new formations, while they themselves have disappeared. The new formations have given rise by analogy to others seeming to be formed like them from lost stems, which, however, perhaps never existed at all. For instance, the forms in -bundus and -cundus are unquestionably originally formations from stems in -bon and -con, which are themselves formations from stems in -bo and -co, and these in turn have been formed by adding -bus and -cus (bo and co) to simpler stems or roots. It has been attempted by hints and cross references to indicate these gradual developments, and it is hoped that the treatment will present to many persons new views of Latin stem-formation. It is not desired that all pupils should learn this etymological matter; but the author has been led to insert it on account of the want of any such means of information in an accessible form.
The actual quantity of vowels, where known, has been indicated, irrespective of syllabic quantity, in order to aid the proper pronunciation of Latin words.
CAMBRIDGE, NOVEMBER 1, 1882.
J. B. GREENOUGH.
a. Actually long vowels are marked without reference to syllabic quantity, and all vowels (in the words when first presented) not marked long are supposed to be naturally short, although the syllable may be long by position. The pronunciation will of course depend on the rules learned from the grammar.
. All matter in square brackets is etymological.
[Gr. Atoλos].-- A Greek word in brackets preceded by Gr. indicates that the Latin word is borrowed from the Greek one given.
[?]. The interrogation in brackets marks a doubtful etymology; after a word or suggestion it indicates, as usual, a doubt, or a suggestion not yet generally received.
- A dagger marks a stem, or, in some cases, a word not found in Latin, but which must once have existed. Such stems and words are printed in different type.
DHA. - Capitals indicate Indo-European words or roots.
The radical sign is used for convenience to indicate a root. By this is meant the simplest Latin form attainable by analysis; though, strictly speaking, a root is impossible in Latin, as roots had ceased to exist, as such, ages before Latin was a separate language.
as if. The words as if indicate that a word is formed according to such an
cf. - Compare, either for resemblance, contrast, or etymological kinship.
prob. - probably.
(-). A hyphen indicates composition.
The plus sign indicates derivation by addition of a termination; the process originally, of course, was one of composition.
reduced. The word reduced indicates the loss of a stem vowel either in composition, derivation, or inflection.
strengthened. The word strengthened indicates a vowel change by which the length of a root vowel is increased; as ✅div., †Dyau, ✅snu, †nau. weakened. The word weakened means that a vowel has descended the vowel scale; as from a to o or e, o to e or i, etc.
Matter in Italics is for translation; in Roman, is explanatory only.