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fraxineus, -a, -um,[†fraxinŏ- (reduced)eus], adj., ashen, of ash. fraxinus, -1, [?], f., an ash (cf. ornus, the mountain-ash). fremitus, -ūs, [†fremi- (stem of fremo) +tus], m., a roaring, a roar, a murmur.— Of many similar noises, a buzzing, a neighing, the noise of battle. fremo, -ui, -itum, -ere, [√frem (cf. Bpuw)], 3. v. n. and a., murmur, roar, shout, cry, howl (of winds), neigh (of horses); arma (cry for); Euoe Bacche, fremens.- - Transferred, of the place where noise is produced, resound, re-echo: ululatu tecta; ripae undis (murmur); via plausu. Esp., murmur assent or approval. -Fig., (howl with rage), rage, rave, be wild, exult. — fremēns, -entis, p. as adj., fierce, wild, spirited (of a horse), neighing. fremor, -ōris, [frem + or (cf. fremo)], m., a murmur, a roar. frendo, no perf., frēsum (fressum), frendere, [?], 3. v. n., gnash the teeth.

frēnātus, -a, -um, p.p. of freno. frēno, -āvī, -ātum, -are,[†freno-], I. v. a., curb, restrain, bridle. Also fig. (as in English).— Poetically, of water, check, stay: cursus aquarum. frēnātus, -a, -um, p.p. (or formed from †frenolike auratus), bridled, furnished with bridles. frenum (frae-), -i, (pl. also -i, -orum), n. and m., a bridle, a bit, reins: frenis immissis (at full speed, cf. habenae). — Fig. : frenum accipere (submit to the rein, of a nation); ea frena furenti concutit (with such a powerful bit does he curb, &c.). frequens, entis, [orig. p. of lost verb, cf. farcio, opάoow], adj., crowded, in great numbers, plenty of, plenteous, very many, very much, numerous: socii; telis (a shower of).- Of time, frequent, repeated, constant, incessant: cul

tu (constant).- Fig., abounding in, crowded with, full of: herbis


frequento, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†frequent-], I. v. a., crowd, people, inhabit. - Less

fretum, -i, [?], n., a strait.

exactly, the sea, a river. frētus, -a, -um, [√for (cf. forma, firmus) + tus, p.p.], adj., (supported by), relying on, trusting to, confiding in, by means of. frico, fricui, fricatum (frictum), fricāre, [?], 1. v. a., rub : arbore costas (rub the sides against a tree).

frīgēns, -entis, p. of frigeo. frigeō, frixi, no sup., frigēre, [†frigo (cf. frigidus)], 2. v. n., be cold, be chilled: vires. - frigēns, -ēntis, p. as adj., cold, stiff, lifeless. frigidus, -a, -um, [†frigo- (cf. frigeo) + dus], adj., cold, chill, cool, icy.- Esp. of death, fixed in death, in the chill of death: ille frigidus (that lifeless body).Less exactly, growing chill (dying), benumbed, inactive, slow: dextera. frigus, -oris, [√frig+us, cf. frigeo], n., cold, chill, frost, winter, coolness, cool shade.-In plur., without distinction of meaning, frosts, cold blasts.

frondātor, -tōris, [†frond + ator, as if fronda (stem of supposed ffrondo)+tor, cf. viator], m., a vine-dresser, a leaf-gatherer. frondens, -entis, p. of frondeo. frondeo, no perf., no sup., fron

dere, [†frond- (as if frondo-)], 2. v. n., put forth leaves, be in leaf: silvae (be in full foliage).

-frondens, -entis, p. as adj., leafy, green,springing, luxuriant: hospitia (leafy retreats, hospitable shade).

frondesco, frondui, no sup., frondescere, [†fronde- (stem of frondeo) + sco], 3. v. n., put forth leaves, leave out: virga metallo (spring).

frondeus, -a, -um, [†frond+eus],

adj., leafy.

frondōsus, -a, -um, [†frond + osus], adj., leafy. frōns, frondis, [?], f., a leaf, leaves (collectively), foliage.- Pl., leaves, foliage (often including the branches).

frōns, frontis, [cf. Gr. dopús, Eng. brow], f., the forehead, the brow, the face.- Esp. as showing the feelings: spem fronte serenat (smoothes his brow with feigned hope); haud laeta fronte (with no cheerful countenance).-Transferred (as in Eng.), face, side: sub adversa fronte. Less exactly, the horns, the head, the prow (of a ship).

fructus, -ūs, [√frug (in fruor) +tus], m., (perh. orig. eating), the enjoying (of anything).-Concretely, (food), fruit (more esp. in later Eng. sense, cf. fruges, grain).

fruges, see frux.

frūmentum, -1, [√fru(g) (cf. fruor and fructus)+ mentum], n., grain. Plur., ears of grain. fruor, fructus (fruitus), frui, [frug (cf. frux)], 3. v. dep., (orig. cat?), consume (with notion of cheer and comfort): parto agricolae. Fig., enjoy: luce;


frustra [case-form (abl.?) of †frus

tro- (cf. frustro)], adv., in vain, to no purpose, uselessly, vainly. frustrātus, -a, -um, p.p. of frustror.

frustror, -ātus, arī, [†frustro(with loss? or obstacle?, cf. fraus)], 1. v. dep., disappoint, deceive: meos vocatus (slight); hiantes clamor (fail).

frustum, -1, [√frud (in fraus) + tum (n. p.p. of lost verb, cut off ?)], n., a piece, a bit, a morsel. frutex, -icis, [?], m., a shrub, a bush.

†frux, frugis, fruge, and plur., [frug (strengthened), as stem,

cf. fruor], f., (orig. food), fruit (usually of the earth, cf. fructus), grain.-Esp., meal (ground coarse for sacrificing): salsae. Also, a

cake (baked): medicatae (of the cake given to Cerberus). fūcātus, -a, -um, p.p. of fuco. Fūcinus, -i, [†1. fucò- (cf. fucus, lichen) + nus], m., a lake among the Apennines (now Lago di Celano).

fūcă, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†1. fuco-], I. v. a., paint, dye, color. 1. fucus, -1, [?], m., a lichen (of a red color, used for a cosmetic and dye). Also, bee-glue.

2. fūcus, -1, [Gr. pûкos], m., a drone. fuga, -ae, [√fug (cf. Gr. øvyk,

Eng. bow) + a], f., a flight, an escape.- Esp. of slaves, running away. — Also, a running, speed, a course.- Personified, Exile. fugātus, -a, -um, p.p. of fugo. fugax, -ācis, [as if fug + ax, prob.

+fuga+cus (reduced)], adj., flying (inclined or able to flee), fleet, swift, rapid.-Less exactly, flying (in act of flight), in flight. fugio, fūgi, fugitum, fugere, [fug, cf. Gr. peúyw], 3. v. a. and n., fly, escape, depart, recede.Esp. in battle, flee, fly. - Less exactly, of mere motion, fly, speed, rush.- Esp., escape, fail (one). - Fig., pass away, speed on.— Act., flee from, fly from, escape, fly, avoid, refuse.

fugỗ, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†fuga-], I. v. a., put to flight, drive away, drive.Fig., chase, disperse, dispel.

fulcio, fulsi, fultum, fulcire, [?, √fule], 4. v. a., prop up, support, sustain, secure. — fultus, -a, -um, p.p., supported, lying, resting, secured. fulcrum, -i, [√fule + crum], n., a support, a prop, a post, a pillar.

Esp., a post, a leg (of a couch). fulgeō, fulsi, no sup., fulgēre (-ere as fr. fulgo), [akin to Gr. pλcyw, fulg, cf. flag (another

form of same root)], 2. v. n., gleam, flash, shine, blaze, glare.fulgēns, -ēntis, p. as adj., bright, gleaming, glittering. fulgo, see fulgeo.

fulgor, -ōris, [√fulg (cf. fulgeo) +or], m., a blaze, a flash, a glitter. - Less exactly, brightness, splendor.

fulgur, -uris, [√fulg, prob. †fulgo+rus (reduced)], n., a thunderbolt, lightning.

fulica, -ae, [?], f., a coot (a seabird).

fūlīgo, -inis, [?, unc. stem + go, cf. caligo], f., soot. fulmen, -inis, [√fulg + men], n.,

a thunderbolt (conceived by the ancients as a missile weapon), lightning, a flash of lightning.Poetically, of persons, thunderbolt (destroying agency in war). fulmineus, -a, -um, [+fulmin +

eus], adj., like lightning, flashing: Mnestheus (cf. fulmen). fulmino, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [†fulmin-], I. v. n., lighten, flash. Poetically (cf. fulmen), flash and thunder: armis Aeneas.

fultus, -a, -um, p.p. of fulcio. fulvus, -a, -um, [?], adj., tawny,

yellow, dark, yellow-haired, orange, golden, auburn-haired. fūmeus, -a, -um, [†fuma- (reduced) + eus], adj., smoky. fūmidus, -a, -um, [†fumŏ + dus], adj., smoky.—Less exactly, steaming.

famifer, -era, -erum, [†fumo + fer (ferus)], adj., smoke-producing, smoky. fumo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre,[†fumŏ-],

I. v. n., smoke. Less exactly, steam, reek: sulphure (emit a sulphurous vapor); pulvere campi (be in a cloud of dust). — fumāns, -āntis, p. as adj., smoking, smoky, steaming, reeking.

fūmus, -i, [√fū (cf. Gr. 0ów) + mus

(cf. Gr. Ouuós)], m., smoke, steam, haze.

fūnālis, c, [†funi- (reduced) +

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fundamentum, -i, [†fundā- (stem of 1. fundo) + mentum], n., a foundation.

fundator, -ōris, [†funda- (stem of 1. fundo) +tor], m., a founder. fundātus, -a, -um, p.p. of i. fundo. funditus [+fundo + tus, cf. divi

nitus], adv., from the bottom (cf. fundus), from the foundation, utterly, entirely.

fundo, -āvi, -ātum, -āre, [+fundo-], 1. v. a., (set on the bottom), secure, make fast. Also, found, build, establish: legibus urbem (institute).

fundo, fūdi, fusum, fundere, [fud, cf. Gr. xeuw], 3. v. a., pour, pour out, shed: vina; lacrimas. Of things more or less like liquids, pour, shed, pour forth: lumen; loquelas; flores (lavish); munuscula (yield); tela; equus armatos (send forth); vitam cum sanguine. With reflexive, or in pass., spread, extend, be spread, be shed, be scattered, scatter, press around, pour in, pour out, rush, flow. Also esp., rout, put to flight.-Poetically, bring forth (of a woman). — waste. From the effect of pouring, throw to the ground, lay low, prostrate, slay. — fūsus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., scattered, spread, dishevelled (of the hair), hanging loosely (of the beard).

fundus, -1, [?], m., the bottom, the foundation: imo fundo (the lowest depths); fundo vertere (cf. funditus). Also, perh. by a mercantile or political connection of ideas, a farm, an estate. fūnereus, -a, -um, [†funcr- (for

funes) + eus], adj., of death, funereal, funeral: faces (cf. fax, flamma); frons (dark, in sign of mourning). funestus, -a, -um, [†funes (cf. funus)+tus, cf. funereus], adj., of death, deadly, fatal. fungor, functus, fungi, [√fung, of unc. kindred], 3. v. dep., perform, discharge.

fungus, -i, [Gr. σpóyyɔs], m., a mushroom. Also, an excrescence (in a candle).

fūnis, -is, [?], m., a rope, a cord. fūnus, eris, [?, perh. root akin to póvos (cf. powós) + us], n., murder, killing, slaughter, havoc.Also, death.-Concretely, a corpse, a funeral, funeral rites, a funeral pile, a funeral train. fuo, see sum.

für, fūris, [fur (strengthened) as stem, cf. pop], comm., a thief. fūrātus, -a, -um, p.p. of fūror. fūrca, -ae, [?, poss. für + ca (f. of cus], f., a fork-shaped pole, a "crotch," a prop (for vines). (Elsewhere a V-shaped yoke, used for the punishment of slaves, which may be the orig, meaning.) furens, p. of furo.

furia, -ae, [√fur (cf. furo) + ia

(f. of ius), perh. through an intermediate stem], f., usually plur., rage,madness, fury, frenzy, wrath: iustae; furiis agitatus amor; furiis incensa (accensas). Less exactly, of the winds, fury. Personified, a Fury (goddesses of divine vengeance). Also of the Harpies.- Poetically (half personified), remorse: scelerum. furialis, -e, [†furia + lis], adj., of a fury. —Less exactly, maddening, exciting to frenzy. furiātus, -a, -um, p.p. of furio. furibundus, -a, -um, [†furi- (stem of furo) + bundus], adj., mad, furious, frenzied.

furio, -āvi, -ātum, -āre,[†furiā-],

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I. v. a., drive mad, madden, infufuriatus, -a, -um, p.p. as adj., frenzied, frantic, infuriated.

furo, -ui, no sup., -ere, [√fur, of unc. kindred], 3. v. n., rage, rave, be crazed: turba; equus ictu ; furorem (spend rage).- Fig., rage, seethe, do anything wildly (according to context): aestus ad auras (rise wildly); vis aquae; febris. - furēns, -entis, p. as adj., distracted, passionstricken, inspired, raging, furious, raving.

fūror, -ātus, -ārī, [†fūr-], I. v. dep., steal, get by stealth.-Fig., steal: fessos oculos labori. furor, -ōris, [√fur + or], m., fury, madness, rage, raving.- Esp. of love, frenzy, fury, passion, craze.- -Concretely (cf. amor), passion (an object of), an act of madness. Personified, Rage. furtim [†fur + tim, as if fur+ tis in acc.], adv., by stealth, secretly, stealthily.

fūrtivus, -a, -um, [†furti- (cf. furtim)+vus, perh. immediately fr. †fur], adj., stealthy.- Less exactly, secret, hidden: quem furtivum edidit (secretly). furtum, -1, [†für- (as root) + tum (n. of tus)], n., theft, stealth.Less exactly, and fig., deceit, stealth, craft, concealment, a trick, a stratagem, an artifice: belli (ambush). Poetically, clandestine love: furto fervidus instat (unseen slaughter).

fuscus, -a, -um, [?], adj., dusky,

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Gabii, -ōrum, [?], m. plur., a town of Latium, once populous and important, but early destroyed, between Rome and Præneste, famous for the worship of Juno. Gabinus, -a, -um, [†Gabio- (or simpler form) + inus], adj., of Gabii cinctus (the Gabine costume, a peculiar arrangement of the toga used in some rites. The right end of the toga, instead of being thrown over the left shoulder as usual, was brought round the body and thrown forward over the right so as to hang in front). gaesum, -i, [prob. Gallic], n., a javelin (long and heavy, used by the Gauls).

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galbanum, -1, [Gr. xaλßavn], n., galbanum (a resinous gum from the East).

galea, -ae, [?, prob. borrowed], f.,

a helmet (of leather), a helmet. galērus, -i, [akin to galea], m., a cap (of skin with the hair on). Galēsus, see Galaesus. galla, -ae, [prob. f. of Gallus], f., an oak gall.

Gallus, -a, -um, [a Gallic word ?], adj., of Gaul, Gallic. Masc. and fem. as subst., a Gaul (man or woman). Plur., the Gauls. Gallus, i, [?, gallus, a cock], m.,


a Roman family name. - Esp. of C. Cornelius Gallus, a friend and|

patron of Virgil. He was reckoned a poet by his friends. Gangaridae, -ārum (-um, the shorter form), [Gr. Fayyapídai], m. plur., a people of India, on the Ganges, from which their name is derived.

Ganges, -is, [Gr. Fáyyns], m., the famous river of India. Ganymēdēs, -is (-i), [Gr. гavvμhdns], m., a beautiful youth, son of Laomedon, carried away by an eagle to be the cupbearer of Jove. Garamantes, -um, [Gr. гapáμavTes], m. plur., a nation in the interior of Africa. Garamantis, -idis, [Gr. PapaμavTís], adj., of the Garamantes. Gargānus, -i, [?], m., a mountainrange in Apulia projecting into the Adriatic (now including Monte Gargano and some other peaks). – Also, as adj., of Garganus, Garganian.

Gargara, -ōrum, [Gr. rápyapa], n. plur., a part of Mt. Ida with a town near by of the same name. garrulus, -a, -um, [†garrò- (cf. garrio) + lus], adj., chattering, noisy, cawing.

gaudeo, gāvīsus, gaudēre, [prob. +gavido- (†gavi+ dus), cf. gaudium with gaudimonium], 2. v. n., feel joy, be delighted, rejoice (internally, cf. laetor), delight in, take pleasure in.-Also, feel proud of, boast. Less exactly and poetically, of things, delight in (love), abound in (cf. laetus].

gaudēns, ēntis, p. as adj., delighted, well pleased. gaudium, -i (-ii), [†gavido- (reduced)+ium (n. of ius), cf. gaudeo], n., joy, delight, pleasure.Concretely, a delight. Personified: mala (Criminal Delights). gāza, -ae, [Gr. yája], f., treasure, riches, wealth.

Gela, -ae, [Gr. Féλa], f., a city of

Sicily, on the south coast, by a

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