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444. acris, spirited, an omen of their energy and warlike disposition. The adjective is, as often in poetry, a descriptive epithet, not meaning a particular individual, but expressing a general characteristic, as we should say "the cruel tiger."—sic, i.e. by this omen.

445. facilem victu, easily subsisting: the supine (§ 303; G. 437 ; H. 547) is to be taken from vivo. Thus the horse is represented as an omen both of prosperity in peace and success in war. Compare Anchises' interpretation in iii. 540.

447. numine divae, i.e. the presence of the goddess herself, meaning that she loved to dwell and show her power there.

448. limina, thresholds. surgebant, crowned (lit. rose on the steps). — gradibus (§ 258, ƒ; G. 384, R.2; H. 425, N.3). —- nexaeque . . trabes, cross-beams cased with bronze. The abundance of metal-work shows the great costliness and splendor of the structure. before aere, in next line (§ 359, c, R.; H. 608, i. N.3).

449. foribus, folding-doors.

-que is elided

450. hoc primum, etc., the temple offers the first hint of Dido's interest in his fortunes (see the description below).

453. dum lustrat, as he surveys (§ 276, e; G. 220, R.; H. 467, 4). This verb is used originally of the priest's going about in purification: hence of other forms of survey or passing under review. — singula, the details.

454. quae ... sit, notice how easily the verb miratur takes two different constructions, — an object and a clause (§ 334; G. 469; H. 529, i.) - a common thing in Latin and Greek.

455. artificum manus, the artists' skill; operum laborem, the laborious work. There is nothing to indicate that the temple was unfinished. inter se, a doubtful expression, perhaps, comparing them with each other. The reading of Ribbeck, intrans, would show that he was drawn by admiration into the interior of the temple.

456. videt, sees: probably painted in the vestibule or colonnade, as Fabius Pictor had painted the temple of Salus in Rome; but some suppose them to have been in sculpture on the pediment. These pictures could have no significance for the Phoenicians. Virgil here transfers to them the arts and customs of the Greeks and Romans.

457. iam, by this time.

458. saevum ambobus: enraged against Agamemnon, as well as hostile to Troy.

461. en Priamus, probably in the scene of the ransom of Hector's body (v. 484). (See Fig. 53.) - sua praemia, its fit reward (§ 196, c; G. 295, R.; H. 449, 2).

462. rerum, for trials, objective genitive (§ 217; G. 361, 2; H. 396, iii.).— tangunt, i.e. with sympathy.

463. solve metus: as if fear contracted or congealed the heart. aliquam salutem, some [degree of] safety. - fama, this renown of Troy.

466. uti, how, introducing the indir. question. The scenes are generally taken from the Iliad, Books xii., xix., x., vi., xxii., xxiv., v.; those representing Troilus, Memnon, and Penthesilea, are from the "Cyclic poets,"

467. hac, see Il. xiv. 14; Bry. 17.

468. hac, another scene, Il. xv. 7; Bry. 8. — cristatus, see II. viii. 160; Bry. 199.

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ism; Homer's "tents" are simply board huts thatched with straw. 471. vastabat, imperfect, describing the scene shown by the picture. 472. avertit, perfect of narrative: the fact is simply told historically.

473. gustassent, subj. as showing the motive (§ 327; G. 579; H. 520, ii.). The city, said the oracle, could not be taken if these horses should taste food on the plain of Troy. Hence they were seized by Ulysses and Diomed on the night of their arrival (Il. x. 434; Bry. 515 et seq.). 475. fertur, haeret: the present tense describes the picture.

476. curru (§ 227, e; G. 346, R.2). — resupinus, on his back, and feet foremost.

477. huic (§ 235, a; G. 343, R.; H. 384, 4, N.2).

479. interea, another picture, see II. vi. 293; Bry. 383.

480. crinibus passis (pando), with hair spread loosely over their shoulders; a sign of mourning, which is closely connected with supplication

506. subnixa, sitting on high.

507. iura dabat, a Roman picture. From the close connection of government and religion in Rome, temples were used for all public purposes: the Senate met, the treasury was kept, and courts were held in temples. iura, leges, i.e. she acted both as judge and as law-giver.

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508. aequabat, trahebat: the division was first made as equal as possible, and then the shares were assigned by lot, - as the Romans divided provinces, etc., among their magistrates.

509. cum subito: Dido was thus occupied when suddenly, etc. See $325, b; G. 582.- concursu, the crowd that had flocked around them

as strangers.

512. penitus, far away, a secondary meaning of the word derived from the meaning within.

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514. coniungere, depending on ardebant used in the sense of volebant, cf. Ecl. ii. I, and note.

515. res incognita, i.e. the reason of their coming and the nature of their reception.

516. dissimulant, keep hid (conceal something that is; compare simulans, v. 352, pretending something that is not). - amicti, wrapped (amb-, iacio).


517. linquant, indir. quest. depending on speculantur, watch to

518. nam: he wondered why they had come, for they had the appearance of a regular embassy, and the formal nature of the embassy, as indicated in this clause, showed something of importance.

519. orantes, used almost like the future participle of purpose (§ 292;

G. 673, 3, R.). - clamore: see, for explanation, v. 539.

520. coram (con-os) fandi, ef speaking to the queen in person.

521. maxumus, eldest, and so first in rank. - placido, calm, as suited his age and dignity, contrasting with clamore, above.

523. gentis frenare, to curb with just restraint the haughty tribes of Africa. This is somewhat premature, as she had only built her city by sufferance; but his address might properly be spiced with flattery.

525. infandos, inhuman, as violating the right of peaceful strangers. 526. propius aspice, look more closely at our condition: though coming in an armed fleet, we have no hostile purposes. — pio, godfearing. 527. non emphatic from its position at the beginning of the line "We have not, as your people seem to suppose." - populare (infin. of purpose, § 273, c), to ravage wantonly.

528. vertere, drive away as booty.

529. non ea vis, etc., we have no such thought of violence; and if we had, conquered men are capable of no such insolence.

530. Hesperiam, the western land, a name borrowed from the Greeks, · who applied it to Italy, as did the Latins sometimes to Spain. The form po (in which the breathing stands for the digamma) is represented in Latin by the cognate word vesper, evening.

532. Oenotri: the name (Enotria was applied to Italy as a land of vines (olvoç). — nunc, this implies that (Enotria was its former name.

533. Italiam (a word allied with vitulus), describing the region as a land of herds. Applied at first to the extreme southern point, where was the nearest communication with the Greeks, the name was by degrees extended over the whole. - ducis, i.e. Italus, a mythical person or eponymous hero said to have gone as a colonist from Arcadia.

534. hic cursus fuit: this (namely, to this land) was our voyage. This is the first of many incomplete verses found in the Æneid, evidences of the unfinished state in which the poem was left by Virgil's early death. 535. cum subito, are to be taken together, cf. v. 509, note. — adsurgens fluctu, rising over the stormy sea. The noun may be either dat. or abl. - nimbosus Orion: seasons in ancient times were named from the rising and setting of certain constellations. Eight different phenomena of this kind in the case of each constellation are noticed, of which only four are obvious and natural signs, the others being only obtainable by calcu lation. These four are: rising just before the sun, setting just after it (heliacal), rising just after sunset and setting just before sunrise (acrony cal). It was the fourth phenomenon, setting just before sunrise, in the case of Orion, happening just before winter, that originally gave that constellation its ill-repute. It may be that Virgil here had no distinct astronomical appearance in his mind, but only associated Orion with bad weather, using nimbosus merely as a descriptive epithet; compare note

to v. 444. In this particular case, however, the constellation would be seen at the same time of year, rising just after sunset; so that Virgil may have confounded the second and the fourth phenomenon. It should be borne in mind that in the great lapse of time between the earliest allusions to these matters and Virgil's time, as well as from his to our own, the precession of the equinox makes a considerable difference in these phenomena. 536. vada caeca, hidden shoals. --- penitus, far away.- procacibus, boisterous. The word primarily denotes insolence in demand (proco), hence bold, lewd, wanton. - austris, one wind put generally for all. 538. pauci, only a few of us, with a negative idea, as almost always with this word. adnavimus, have floated. — oris (§ 225, b; G. 344, R.3;

H. 380, 4).

539. tam barbara, so barbarous as to, etc.

541. prima terra, the very margin of the land.

543. at sperate, at least expect (supply esse). - fandi, right (only used in this sense as the opposite of nefandi, unspeakable, and so wrong), 544. erat: he knows not that Eneas is still alive.

545. pietate (abl. of specification, qualifying iustior, § 253; H. 424), i.e. just in performing his duties to the gods; cf. Cic. N. D., i. 41, 116. Observe the chiastic (§ 344, ƒ) order of the words.

546. vescitur, breathes (air being as necessary to life as food). See Od. xiv. 44; Bry. 51.

547. aetheria, of heaven, as opposed to the Lower World. оссиbat, now lies low, i.e. has succumbed. — umbris, loc, ablative.

548. non metus: in that case, we have no fear, for he will protect or avenge us. The connection would be easier if we were allowed to read ne te, no fear lest you repent of being beforehand with him in kind offices. As it is, we must separate the two clauses, and translate the second, nor should you disdain to be the first in the rivalry of kind offices, i.e. by making Æneas your debtor in receiving us hospitably. - certasse (§ 270, b; G. 423; H. 410, iv.). For tense see § 288, e ; G. 275, i.

549. poeniteat (§ 266; cf. Ecl. x. 17): it is with reference to the ideas here expressed that Æneas is described in vv. 544, 545; his virtue (pietate) would prompt him to repay kindness, and his power (bello, etc.) enable him to avenge injury. — sunt et, etc., i.e. in the event of his death (which Ilioneus does not say, on account of the omen of mentioning such a calamity), then the cities and fields (arva) of Sicily will be our refuge; or, according to Ribbeck's reading, its weapons (arma) will avenge us if wronged.

551. liceat subducere, let it be permitted us to haul up our storm. racked ships (§ 266; G. 256, 3; H. 484, i.).

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