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360. his commota, i.e. the deed produces fear; the treasures produce hope of successful escape. parabat, began to make ready.

361. conveniunt, those gather, in whom, etc. quibus (§ 231; G. 349; H. 387). — odium, hatred for past wrongs; metus, fear of coming ones.

363. avari, etc.: the greed of the tyrant is contrasted with the distance whither his lost treasures are gone. pelago (§ 258, g; G. 387).

365. devenere, landed, lit. came down from the sea that rises towards the horizon. Compare conscendi, v. 381, also ȧváyri, karáɣew locos, at the spot, see § 258, b; G. 342, R.'; H. 380, 3: notice the difference

of idiom.

367. mercati [sunt], they bought the ground. Byrsam: the Phoenician Bursa (Hebrew Bosra) is a citadel. The confusion of this with the Greek Bßipoa, hide, probably gave rise to the story, according to which the colonists bought as much ground as they could cover with an ox-hide. Cutting the hide into strips, they succeeded in getting a generous site for the new town. This verse and the next are bracketed by Ribbeck, and they are certainly unnatural.

368. possent, subj. of indir. disc., being a part of the terms of the bargain (§ 341, c; G. 630; HI. 528, 1).

369. vos, expressed for emphasis on account of the change of subject (§ 194, a).qui tandem, who, pray?

370. talibus, as follows.

372. repetens, going back; pergam, go on (§ 307, b; G. 598; H. 509).

373. vacet audire, if you should have leisure to listen to, etc.

374. ante...componat, Vesper would sooner bring the day to an end, closing [the gate of] Olympus: so the phrase "open the gates of the morning.". Mount Olympus in Thessaly, the residence of the gods, had come to be the conventional poetic term for heaven.

377. forte sua, by its own chance (fors): i.e. there was no hostile intent.

378. pius, properly so called on account of his filial piety in carrying away his father, but the word was probably not restricted to that, but indicates Virgil's whole idea of his character. — raptos ex hoste, rescued from the midst of the foe.

379. fama


notus: this boast is quite in keeping with ancient notions. Modesty, real or assumed, is a late growth of civilization.

380. patriam: because Dardanus, son of Jupiter and Electra, came genus: he is to re-establish

originally from Italy. (See table, p. 65.)

the race in its old seat.

381. bis denis: the distributive is used, because ten are counted each time ($95, c; G. 95, R.1; H. 174, 2). — conscendi aequor, I climbed the sea, because the sea seems to rise as it recedes (cf. v. 365), or simply embarked upon. — navibus (§ 248; G. 391, R.; H. 420).

382. data, spoken at various times (see ii. 771; iii. 94, 154).

383. vix, i.e. and these with difficulty.

384. ipse, opposed to the ships. ignotus (in-gnotus), although he has just said fama notus: his person is unknown, though his fame has spread. — Libyae, the only continent left, as he has been driven from Asia (Troy) and Europe (Thrace), and is still forbidden to reach Italy.

385. plura querentem, beginning to complain further (conative pres., § 276, b; G. 218, R.2), compare Ecl. i. 29, and note.- nec, and not (qualifying passa). Notice that the Latin likes to combine negative and connective in one word.

387. haud invisus caelestibus, i.e. it is by favor of heaven that you have arrived in this hospitable land.

388. qui adveneris, subjunctive as giving the reason (§ 320, e; G. 636, referred by H. to 517).

389. perge modo, only go on, and you will find good fortune.

390. reduces: a common use of two accusatives in apposition after verbs of knowing, saying, etc. (§ 186, c; G. 324; H. 373, N.2). We may supply esse, but the construction is older than the infinitive with the accusative, and is no doubt the origin of the indirect discourse construction.

392. ni frustra, etc., i.e. unless I am quite ignorant of the science. — augurium (avis, and an uncertain verb-root): she relieves his anxiety without betraying herself as a goddess. The flight of birds was the most common means of divination; hence augurium and auspicia (avi-specio). — vani, falsely (§ 191), not necessarily implying any conscious deceit on the part of the parents.

393 et seq. This passage has given more trouble than seems necessary. The swans are represented in two groups, one alighting (terras capere), and the other looking down on the place where the first has alighted (terras captas). They are again described, the former as reduces, the latter in cinxere, etc., in 398. The ships correspond to these two groups: those already in (portum tenet), to the former, and those just coming in (subit ostia), to the latter.

394. lapsa, swooping down on the swans, which flew low like other water-fowl. — aperto caelo, in the open sky, where they were exposed, as were the ships on the open sea.

395. turbabat, was just now driving; but now (nunc), etc. ordine, i.e. reunited after their dispersion (turbabat).

396. aut... videntur, some are now alighting, others looking down on those already (iam) alighted (lit., the places occupied by them), preparing to take their place with them.

398. cinxere, circle about in their play, perfect because they have surrounded the sky in a ring. -- cantus, denoting their freedom from alarm. This picture of security suggests the best omens for the ships.

399. tuorum for tua.

Compare λaòr Axair, Il. ii. 120.

400. subit ostia, are making the entrance, to speak nautically, as we may in this connection (§ 228, a; G. 330; H. 386, 3).

402. avertens (§ 292; G. 668; H. 549, 1), as she turned away, and not till then she allowed her divine nature to appear.

403. ambrosiae (Il. i. 529; Bry. 668): the word itself means properly immortal, and is most commonly applied to the food of the gods; but the gods used ambrosia also for ointment (Il. xiv. 170; Bry. 206) and perfume (Od. iv. 445; Bry. 573). Here it can only be translated ambrosial.

404. vestis defluxit: all the goddesses except Diana (v. 320) had flowing garments.

405. patuit (used in a kind of passive sense), was manifest a goddess : compare incedo, v. 46.

407. natum, your true son emphatic by its position. — tu quoque, you too, as well as the other divinities. - falsis imaginibus, i.e. the assumed guise of a huntress.

409. veras, in our true character, as mother and son.


410. incusat, chides (in, causa). — talibus (§ 189, b; G. 195, R.2; H. 441, 1).

411. saepsit, hedged about (saepes).

412. amictu, with circumfudit (§ 225, d; G. 348; H. 384, 2). Concealment by a mist is a very common device in epic poetry; cf. Il. v. 345; Bry. 422.

415. Paphum, Paphos, in Cyprus (a Phoenician colony, see note, v. 257), the seat of the most noted temple and worship of Venus. 416. Sabaeo ture, Arabian frankincense :

"Sabæan odours, from the spicy shore

Of Arabie the blest." - Paradise Lost, iv. 162.

417. ture, sertis, incense and garlands: no blood was shed on the altars of Venus. The garland played a prominent part in religious and

other rites. The manufacture of garlands as an article of commerce is represented in Fig. 51.

Fig. 51.

418. corripuere viam, they hastened on the way (narrative perfect, merely stating the fact).

419. ascendebant, they were now mounting (descriptive imperfect, as the poet here takes a new point of view).- plurimus, high above, i.e. so large that much of its bulk was above the city (§ 200, d; H. 453, 5). 420. adversas arces, the towers opposite (beyond the valley).

Fig. 52.

421. molem, at a distance, the city seems one mass of buildings.-magalia quondam, just now a cluster of huts. The word itself is Phoenician, and the suburbs of Carthage retained the name of magalia. For a primitive Italian hut such as Virgil probably had in mind see Fig. 52.

422. miratur . . . viarum: he wonders at these signs of a great city, in what he thought a desert (v. 384). - strata, pavements (from sterno, to strew or level: hence, street). -viarum, a Greek way of speaking (§ 216, b; G. 371, R.; H. 397, N.4).


Tyrii, but best translated with the infinitives.

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423. pars... pars, in appos. with - ducere (depending on instant, § 271; G. 424; H. 533, i. 1), to trace, or build in continuous line.

424. subvolvere, to roll up by putting levers, etc., beneath (observe the two opposite meanings of sub in composition (up and down); compare subigo and summitto).

425. tecto, for a group of buildings (§ 235): the plough does not seem to have been used in tracing the site of single dwellings. sulco, with a furrow. There seems to have been a peculiar idea of appropriation among the ancients, connected with the use of the plough; probably a reminiscence of the earliest beginnings of agriculture among nomadic tribes. According to the Etruscan ritual, by which Roman cities were laid out, a bull and a cow were yoked together, the bull outside (to the right). Then the furrow was drawn in such a way that the clods fell inside, -- by which it would seem that the ancient plough turned its furrow to the left instead of the right. As it had only one handle, held in the left hand, — like that now used in Greece, Asia Minor, etc., this would be the natural mode. See Plutarch's Romulus. By a similar symbolical act a city was again desecrated (Hor. Od. i. 16).

426. This apparently spurious line contradicts v. 507; see note, v. 264. 427. theatris, an idea carried back from Virgil's own time. No permanent theatre was built in Rome till B.C. 58, and none of stone till B.C. 55, though one had been attempted a hundred years before. Even in Athens none was attempted till B.C. 500.

429. rupibus, see § 258, a; G. 411, R.; H. 414, N.-scaenis, see note, v. 164. (See also Fig. 41.)

430. qualis... labor, such (the omitted antecedent of qualis) toi was theirs as busies the bees in summer, etc.

434. venientum, an archaic form of genitive (§ 87, d; G. 85, 3; H. 158, 2). — agmine facto, as if making a sally on the drones. Compare v. 82.


435. ignavom, lazy or inefficient for lack of skill (gnavus: navus, kindred with nosco).— pecus, praesepibus, used properly only of cattle. The whole description is taken from Georg. iv. 162–169.

436. fervet, is all alive; the figure is derived from the agitation of boiling.

438. suspicit (see note, v. 424), looks up to. He has now come down the hill and approached the walls.

440. viris (§ 248, a, R.; G. 346, r.2; H. 385, 3). — neque cernitur ulli, is visible to no one (§ 232, b, cf. c; G. 352, R.; H. 388, 3).

441. laetissimus, very rich.

442. quo loco, the spot where (§ 200, b; G. 618; H. 445, 8). — primum signum, the first token of rest: opposed to iactati undis, which accounts for the juxtaposition of primum and iactati.

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