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166. scopulis, of rocks (abl. of quality), i.e. the cave is made by them. 167. aquae dulces, fresh water springs, opposed to amarae, brackish or salt. - vivo saxo (abl. of material, § 244; G. 396, 2), living rock i.e. in its natural site, and so sharing in the common life of nature.

168. fessas, weary, as if the ships felt the hardships they had under

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174. silici, from flint (§ 229, c; G. 388, R.3; H. 385, 4).

175. foliis, dry leaves, used as tinder (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).circum dedit, he put about it.

176. nutrimenta, any thing that would keep the spark alight, chips, stubble, etc. (§ 225, d; G. 348; H. 384, 2). - rapuit, etc., he kin lled a blaze in dry fuel. The word seems to apply to the sudden bursting out of the blaze. - fomite, root in foveo (abl. of instrument).

177. Cererem, corn: identified with the goddess herself by the so-called figure, Metonymy (compare Ecl. vi. 15; Liv. xxii. 37). - corruptam, damaged. arma, utensils, such as hand-mills (saxa), baking-pans, etc.

178. expediunt, fetch out from the ships. - fessi rerum, weary of their hardships: they are eager to catch ever so short a respite. For the genitive, see § 218, c; G. 374; H. 399, 3. - receptas, recovered from the sea. 179. torrere, to parch, before grinding or bruising (frangere): the wet grain would particularly need it.

180. scopulum conscendit, cf. Od. x. 146; Bry. 176: scopulus -(OKÓTEλoç. from OKOTE) is a rock suitable for a look-out, a borrowed word; the corresponding Latin form is speculum, with a different sense. Cf. v. 162, note.

181. pelago (locative abl.). Anthea (§ 63, f; G. 72; H. 68) si quem videat (indir. quest., § 334, f; G. 462, 2; H. 529, ii. N.'), [to see] if he can see any [thing of] Antheus.

183. Capyn, see references, v. 181, also § 63, g.-arma, shields, per

mere, from the motion of the hand in drawing the reins; compare Æn. xi. 600. Opposed to laxas dare as one expression. See § 271; G. 424; H. 533. — iussus (§ 292; G. 667; H. 549, 1).

64. vocibus (§ 249; G. 405; H. 421, i.).—usa est: in scanning, read usa'st, see § 13, b.

65. namque (in prose usually etenim) introduces the reason of her coming to him; compare Ecl. i. 7, note. —divom... rex: compare Il. i. 544; Bry. 688. The expression is said to have been used by Ennius.

66. mulcere, in prose ut mulceas (§ 331, g; G. 424, R.; H. 535, iv.). See Od. x. 21; Bry. 25. — vento, see note, Ecl. ii. 26.

67. aequor: a kind of cognate accusative (§ 238; G. 331; H. 371, ii. N.).

68. Ilium: they carried Ilium because they were on their way to found a new city to continue the old race. victos: as the old home of the Penates was destroyed, they might be said to be conquered. - Penates: these were the Roman household gods, of which each family had its own, worshipped in connection with Vesta, goddess of the Hearth. Each city also had its hearth, with its sacred fire, its worship of Vesta, and its Penates; and those of Lavinium, which was according to the myth the metropolis of Latium, were supposed to have been brought thither by Æneas in person. When Rome became the head of Latium, it assumed the charge of these sacred rites; and the consuls and dictators regularly offered sacrifices in Lavinium to Vesta and the Penates upon assuming and giving up their office.

69. incute vim, give force to the winds, as it were by a blow (quatere) of his sceptre. submersas: proleptic use of the participle, "So that they will be sunken." ventis (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386, 1).

70. age diversos, drive them (the men) scattered. — disice, usually spelled improperly disiice (§ 10, d).

71. sunt mihi: compare v. 11 and note.

72. quarum (§ 216; G. 370; H. 397, 3). 398; H. 424).

forma (§ 253; G.

73. iungam, sc. tibi: Juno bribes him, because the act is beyond his lawful province (compare Il. xiv. 267; Bry. 320). — conubio (§ 248; G. 401; H. 419, iii.).— propriam dicabo, will assign her to you as your own (§ 186, c; G. 324).

74. meritis, services. exigat (§ 317; G. 545; H. 497, ii.). 75. prole: abl. of means (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).

76. tuus... explorare, yours the task to determine what you will have the whole speech is exculpatory. For construction see § 270; G. H. 529, i.).

423; H. 538.- optes (§ 334; G. 469;

77. mihi (§ 235; G. 343).—capessere (§ 167, c; H. 336, N.").

78. tu mihi... concilias, you win for me whatever rule I have. hoc quodcumque regni, a short form for hoc regnum quodcumque est (§ 216; G. 371; H. 397, 3).- sceptra lovemque = the sceptre (i.e. power) from Jove (hendiadys). The address is one of courtly compliment, as by v. 62 the power is direct from Jupiter.

79. accumbere (§ 331,g; G. 532, R.4; H. 535, iv.). The Romans reclined at their meals, and the same custom is attributed by Virgil to the gods, and to earlier nations, though in fact the early Greeks sat, as we do (See Fig. 38.)

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80. potentem, iord.

nimborum (§ 218; G. 374; H. 399, 3).

81. conversa cuspide, with the spear-point turned that way. Macrobius says the description of the storm is taken from Nævius' Punic War, but see Od. v. 295; Bry. 347.

82. agmine facto, like an assaulting column, the technical term for a column of attack.

83. qua, where (§ 258,g; cf. § 148, e).- turbine (abl. of manner); in prose we should have a preposition.

84. incubuere: the perfect suddenly shifts the point of view, to indicate the swiftness of the act: and now they have fallen upon the sea, and are ploughing up (ruunt), etc. (cf. Od. v. 291; Bry. 348). — mari (§ 228; G. 346; H. 386).

85. procellis, gusts (§ 248, c; H. 421, ii.).-Africus: the south-west

wind (sirocco), blowing hot from Africa, is often one of the most violent on the Italian coast.

89. Teucrorum, the Trojans: so called from one of their ancestor Teucer. As the Trojans have to be constantly mentioned, Virgil uses all the names that can be made from the names of their various ancestors or heroes, or from any thing else connected with them; as Anchisiada, Laomedontiada, Dardani, etc., just as the Greeks are called by various tribal names, Achivi, Danai, Argivi, etc. — incubat, broods upon.

90. poli, the poles = the heavens which revolve upon them (according to the ancient astronomy). micat, flashes: the word expresses both the glittering and the quivering effect of the flash.

91. intentant, threaten: literally, spread before them.

92. solvuntur, etc., his limbs are paralyzed by the chill of terror (cf. Od. v. 297; Bry. 356): the ancients betrayed their emotions in a far more lively way than would be allowable in heroes of the present time.

93. duplicis palmas, simply, both hands. The ancient attitude of prayer was not with clasped hands, but with the palms spread upward, as if to receive the blessing: hence the emphasis of the phrase "worship with clean hands."

94. refert, simply, utters (strictly, brings back his words to the light as things hidden). — ter quaterque, cf. Od. v. 306; Bry. 366.

95. quis, dat. plur. following contigit.- ante ora: a happy lot, because their friends were witnesses of their deeds and glorious death.

96. contigit, befell: usually said of good fortune, as here. -oppetere, sc. mortem, hence, to die.

97. Tydide, son of Tydeus, Diomedes, who met Eneas in single combat. II. v. 297; Bry. 201. —campis (locative abl.). -mene potuisse, to think that I could not, etc., cf. v. 37 (§ 274; G. 341, 1; H. 539, iii.). — dextra (abl. of instrument).

99. saevus, stern, not sparing the foe: so Eneas himself is called saevus, xii. 107. — Acacidae, i.e. Achilles, grandson of Eacus.

100. Sarpedon: the Lycian prince, son of Jupiter. His body is said to have been borne home by Sleep and Death; but Virgil does not care for this detail. Simois, etc., the Simois rolls the shields, helms, and stalwart forms of so many heroes carried away beneath its waves. See II. xii. 22; Bry, 29.

102. iactanti, as he utters (dative of reference, § 235; G. 354). Compare note to Ecl. i. 28. - procella, the hurricane, concretely, as the solid body that strikes; Aquilone, the particular wind that produces it, and so makes it howl (stridens).

103. adversa, right in his face (adjective for adverb, § 191; G. 324, R.; H. 443).

104. avertit, (sc. se; compare v. 158, note) dat: the subject is prora. The prow by turning away is said to cause the broaching-to.

105. cumulo (abl. of manner).

106. his (§ 235; G. 343).

107. aestus, the seething flood: originally the boiling of heated water. -arenis, i.e. the water is turbid with sand; they are approaching the Syrtes. See v. 111.

108. torquet, hurls: the word is usually applied to the hurling of a spear, from the revolving motion like that of a rifle-ball given by the thong wound round it. - latentia, hidden by the roaring waves: in calm they are visible (" dorsum immane," v. 110) at the surface. These reefs are supposed to be just outside the bay of Carthage.

109. saxa: a sort of parenthesis. Rocks like what, in midwater, the Italians call altars, - not, necessarily, this particular group, which they probably knew nothing about.

III. in brevia et Syrtis, shoals and quicksands, i.e. the shoals of the great Syrtis. visu (§ 303; G. 437; H. 547).

112. aggere, embankment: the image is taken from military (naval) entrenchments, in which the ships drawn up on land were thus fortified; compare castris, iv. 604.

114. ipsius, i.e. Eneas, the leader himself; compare Ecl. iii. 3, and note. — ingens pontus: like our phrase, a heavy sea."


115. puppim (§ 56, b; G. 60; H. 62). — excutitur, is thrown overboard: the regular term for being thrown from a chariot or horse, etc. 116. ibidem torquet, spins about in the same spot.―ter: the number is proverbial ("three times round went our gallant ship ").

117. rapidus, hungry; compare rapio, to seize. aequore (locative abl.).

118. rari, scattered, i.e. the drowning crew.

119. arma: shields, for instance, would float quite visibly for awhile, or the word may refer to any equipments. — tabulae, planks.

121. qua, instrumental ablative (§ 248; G. 403; H. 420).

122. hiemps: this word has properly a parasitic in the nominative. – laxis compagibus (instrumental abl.), with loosened joints. 123. imbrem, properly rain-flood; but here water in general. — rimis (abl. of manner).

124. murmure (abl. of manner).

125. Neptunus: the name of this god is probably from the same root as our word naphtha (Zend, NAPTA, wet). Originally a god of water generally, he became in time identified with the Greek Poseidon, and restricted to the sea, i.e. the Mediterranean, the outer waters belonging to Oceanus.

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