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782. imperium aequabit, compare i. 287.- terris (§ 225; G. 343; H. 384, ii.).

783. septem arces, the seven heights (septimontium); the name was first given to the Palatine, with its spurs and those of the adjoining Esquiline; it was afterwards extended to the larger group of the "seven hills," with which at first it had nothing to do.

784. felix prole virum, blessed with a progeny of heroes, as Cybele, "mother of the gods." Her name Berecyntia is derived from Mt. Berecyntus in Phrygia. She is represented with the turreted crown (turrita) worn by personified cities. (See Fig. 80, p. 161.)

788. geminas acies, both your eyes, an expression suited to the prophetic enthusiasm of Anchises.

790. caeli sub axem, beneath the great arch of heaven.

792. aurea condet saecula, etc., shall found again the golden age, through the fields once ruled by Latian Saturn; see Ecl. iv. 6, and Introduction.

794. super Garamantas, beyond the Garamantes, a tribe of interior Africa, which sent an embassy to Augustus. How this struck the Roman imagination is seen in the following verses. -Indos: the reference is to the East, generally. When Augustus was in Syria (B.C. 20), embassies from the Parthians and Indians restored the standards taken more than thirty years before from Crassus.

796. extra... vias, i.e. beyond the tropics. Compare the expression of Gray, referring to the Arctic regions,



"In climes beyond the solar road." - Progress of Poesy.

- Atlas, cf. iv. 247.

798. in adventum, against his coming, just as we might say, i.e. looking towards it.

799. responsis, i.e. oracles which are to be fulfilled by his coming. 8oo. turbant (intrans.), are troubled. - septemgemini, referring to the numerous mouths of the Delta of the Nile.


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802. fixerit...licet, though he shot the brazen-hoofed doe, etc.— Erymanthi pacarit nemora, i.e. by killing the wild boar. - Lernam, referring to the Hydra. These exploits of Hercules were all within the limits of Arcadia, and so give no great notion of his wanderings. Atlas, Antæus, and Geryon might have suggested a wider range.

The triumphant march of Bacchus, His car was drawn by tigers or (See Fig. 15, p. 33, and cf.

805. Liber, see note, Ecl. vii. 58. in the fable, led him as far as India. lynxes, guided by reins of vine-branch. Fig. 122.)

Fig. 122.

806. virtute extendere vires, to put forth strength in [deeds of] valor.

SOS. olivae, see v. 774.

810. regis: Numa, the second king, the reputed founder of most of the religious customs of Rome, a native of the Sabine Cures.

812. imperium magnum: a city of perhaps twenty or thirty thousand inhabitants, and a territory of about fifteen miles square. Anchises speaks in vision of the vast empire to follow.

815. iactantior, too boastful, as grandson of Numa. He was said to be founder of the plebs

as an order in the state: hence gaudens popularibus auris, when intriguing for the kingdom.

816. nunc, i.e. even then before the republic was founded. The allusion is meant to be more

or less disparaging to the lower orders.

818. fasces receptos, the recovered fasces. The fasces, or bundles of rods and axe, were borne by the lictors before the highest officer, as the symbol of imperium, or military power; which was wrested by Brutus from the kings and restored to the aristocracy.

820. natos . . . . . vocabit : the well-known story of Brutus, who sentenced to death his own sons for joining in a conspiracy to restore the exiled king. Hence


saevas secures.

822. utcumque ferent minores, however posterity shall report his deeds. In these words Anchises admits the cruelty of the act, but immediately excuses it on the ground of patriotism.

824. Decios, etc.: the Decii, father, son, and grandson, solemnly devoted themselves to death (like Arnold of Winkelried), each to win a doubtful battle, in the wars of the Latins, of the Samnites, and of Pyrrhus respectively; Torquatus (T. Manlius) won his title, with a golden neckchain, by slaying a gigantic Gaul; Camillus, returning from banishment, drove back the victorious Gauls, winning back the conquered standards (referentem signa). The Drusi, a respectable but not eminent family, are here mentioned in compliment to Livia, wife of Augustus.

827. concordes animae: Pompey and Cæsar, in equal arms (paribus in armis), since their power was about equal.

828. si... attigerint, if they once attain the light of life. The artifice by which all these future events are represented as contingent and uncertain softens a little the bleak reality.

830. socer: Cæsar, whose daughter Julia was the third and best beloved wife of Pompey. She died B.C. 54, while Cæsar was in Gaul. arce Monoeci, the rampart of Monœcus (Monaco), on the coast just east of Nice. It is given here, generally, to signify Cæsar's passage from Gaul into Italy.

831. gener ... Eois: the main reliance of Pompey was on the forces

of the East.

832. adsuescite: the expression seems to refer to the naturally humane temper of both the rivals.

834. tu prior: Cæsar, as the more illustrious. Besides, the exploits of Cæsar, as a popular chief, were distasteful to the courtiers of Augustus, and it was fashionable to make little account of them. Hence the objurgatory tone.

836. ille: L. Mummius, conqueror of Corinth, B. C. 146. — triumphata, here transitive in the sense of triumph over.

837. currum, alluding to the well-known triumphal procession.

838. ille: L. Æmilius Paullus, conqueror of Perseus (aciden, as descended from Achilles), B.C. 168. By Argos, etc., is meant all Greece, of which, in Anchises' time, this was the chief city.

840. templum Minervae, see ii. 163.

841-4. Cato, etc. These heroes are Cato the Censor; Cossus, a hero of the early wars against the Gauls; the Gracchi, the celebrated tribunes of the people, one of whose ancestors had distinguished himself in Spain; the Scipios, Africanus elder and younger; Fabricius, "strong in poverty," who defeated Pyrrhus; Serranus (the famous Regulus), a general in the

first Punic war: the name was given to Regulus from the anecdote of his sowing in the field (sulco serentem) when the news was brought of his election as consul.

845. quo fessum rapitis, whither do you hurry me, out of breath? — Maxumus (Fabius), the commander against Hannibal. The following verse is taken almost verbally from Ennius (see Cic. Cato Major, 4, 10), and refers to his method of waging war, whence he was called Cunctator. 847. spirantia aera, the breathing bronze, statues like life.

848. vivos... voltus, shall mould the living features in marble. The expression ducere applies strictly to yielding materials, like metal, clay, or wax, and suggests that marble itself is pliable in the hands of a consummate artist.

849. orabunt melius: in forensic oratory, the names of Crassus, Hortensius, and Cicero, stand as high as their Greek masters. But Anchises purposely disparages every other glory-art, oratory, science — beside that of arms.

852. pacis morem, the terms of peace.

853. parcere subiectis (see Liv. xxx. 42): remorseless as was the Roman policy of conquest, it did protect the existence of the subject states. 854. mirantibus: Æneas and the Sibyl are filled with amazement at the grandeur of these prophetic words, — hinting, as has been suggested, that Virgil was stirred himself by the tone of the passage.

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855. Marcellus (M. Claudius), one of the best generals against the Gauls, and afterwards against Hannibal, called the "Sword of Rome." The spolia opima were won by slaying with his own hand the Gallic chief Viridomarus. His name is mentioned last, to introduce that of his young namesake.

857. tumultu, alarm: strictly, the name for civil war. Cicero (Phil. viii. 1), says, “Potest enim esse bellum sine tumultu; tumultus esse sine bello non potest. Quid est enim tumultus, nisi perturbatio tanta, ut maior timor oriatur? unde etiam nomen ductum est tumultus. Itaque maiores nostri tumultum Italicum, quod erat domesticus; tumultum Gallicum, quod erat Italiae finitimus; praeterea nullum nominabant."

858. sistet, shall set firm (contrasted with tumultu).— eques: the most celebrated exploits of Marcellus were with cavalry.

859. Quirino, the Sabine god of battles (identified with the deified Romulus), to whom the spolia opima were consecrated.

865. quantum instar (this word had originally the sense of image, from stare), what a likeness ! — ipso, opposed to comitum.

868. gnate: the antique spelling is thought to be preferred by Virgil in solemn discourse.

869. ostendent tantum: the young Marcellus, son of Octavia, sister of Augustus, died in his twentieth year.

871. fuissent, properly sub. of indirect discourse standing for fut. perf.; lit., "it seemed would be, if these gifts should have been," etc., but best translated by if these gifts had been.

872. quantos virum gemitus, what lamentation of strong men! Mavortis urbem: Rome, the city of Mars.

873. quae funera: in the funeral procession of the young Marcellus, there were six hundred couches containing the images of his illustrious kindred. The funeral was on the Campus Martius.

874. tumulum: the ruins of the immense tomb are still to be seen near the Tiber. (See Fig. 123.)

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876. spe tollet avos, shall elate with hope his forefathers, who are supposed to be aware of his merits even while in the shades below. 879. tulisset, i.e. if he had lived. - illi (§ 228, b).

881. seu... armos, or spur the flanks of the foaming steed, repeating the allusion of v. 858.

882. rumpas (§ 307, b, R.; G. 598; H. 511, I, N.').

883. tu Marcellus eris, thou shall be Marcellus, when born upon earth; or a Marcellus, worthy of so illustrious a name. A celebrated

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